Switches Installation Electric Fireplaces

From the Ground Up: Electrical Wiring

Whenever we flip a switch, plug in an appliance, or adjust a reading light, we interact with the electrical system in a house. A good electrician can make those interactions easier in a hundred little ways, so it’s best to communicate your needs early—ideally after the house is framed and before the drywall or insulation goes up

who has wired many This Old House TV projects, takes his customers on a job-site walk-through, showing where he plans to put switches, lights, and receptacles. “I’ll even ask them if they’re left-handed or right-handed,” he says. “It makes a big difference when you’re looking for the light switch.” It’s easy to make changes at this point in the process, but once the walls are closed in, any second thoughts become far more difficult and expensive to implement.

starts wiring a house, virtually every aspect of his work is controlled by codes, both local and national. These codes are the final word on safe installation practices. Gallant is meticulous in adhering to them, yet he often goes a step further to make his electrical systems even safer and easier to use. On the following pages, you’ll see the basics of wiring a house to meet code

Outlet Boxes: Plastic or Metal?

When given a choice between installing outlet boxes made of blue PVC or those made of steel, chooses plastic. “People say metal is so durable. But so is plastic—it’ll be around forever—and it’s about 70 percent cheaper.” Plastic boxes also save installation time because there’s no need to ground each one, as must be done with metal. (Local code has the last word, however; in some communities, plastic boxes are forbidden.)

Receptacles: Massachusetts requires electrical outlets every 12 feet; puts one every 8 feet. “Not a big deal on the budget, but it’s a lot more convenient.”

Security lights: For added safety, mounts exterior floodlights controlled by a switch in the master bedroom.

Light fixtures: always hard-wires at least one light fixture to a switch. If the switch just controls the receptacle that a lamp is plugged into, “sooner or later someone turns off the lamp, and then the switch won’t work,” he says. “It’s a pain.

Outdoor receptacles: The code mandates two (with GFCI); installs at least three, in front and in back.

How are electrics installed?

Electrical installations in homes are carried out by licensed electrical contractors. They typically involve first a series of designs, establishing where things like lighting and power outlets will be positioned, as well as where large appliances like rangehoods, exhaust fans, air conditioners, stoves and the like will be installed. All of the decisions around where electricity needs to go will focus on how the home will be used – both to begin with, and in the future.

These designs are normally carried out by an electrical planner, and it’s crucial that they be completed early in the build, to ensure that no further changes are required once things are in place. Revisions to the electrical plan once walls have gone in can significantly add to the cost of your electrical installation.

A typical electrical installation

Have a look at the diagram – that will explain the basic layout. The electrical supply comes into the home from a pole transformer or from a line passing the house with a pole transformer somewhere along the street – or your house may be in a streetscape where the electricity comes in from underground cabling. A service fuse connects the supply to the switchboard / switch box with its power meter and main switch. From there, power is routed to the individual circuit breakers and safety switches for the different light and power circuits in your home.

the basis of electrical installations

Power comes in on two wires; the active and the neutral. Electrical current flows from the power generators, through power lines lines to the suburbs and into your place via the ‘active conductor’ wire, and flows back into the grid via the ‘neutral’ wire.

the basis of electrical safety

By rights, were you to touch a neutral wire connection point (please – do not actually do this!), you would not receive a shock because there are so many earthing points for the neutral, and you yourself are earthed. A safety switch, mentioned above, monitors if there’s any leakage of electrical current to earth in the circuits it is wired to protect (normally power point circuits).



Whether your home is new or old, there could be things wrong with the electrical work that you are unaware of. Oftentimes, these issues are never noticed until someone gets hurt or a fire occurs. It?s important to have an inspection of your home?s electrical system by one


Sometimes new homes are built so quickly that adequate care is not taken to secure the outlets properly. Besides being an eyesore, they can be dangerous. Wires can move around and come loose from the terminals, causing them to overheat and potentially catch fire. You can buy plastic spacers to tighten the connection or place small washers around the screws.


Wires that are too short provide a poor electrical connection. More importantly, they can be dangerous. Wires should stick out at least three inches from the electrical box. If you have wires that are too short, you can buy wire connectors that will extend the wires. These are available at home improvement and hardware stores.


If an electrical box is behind combustible material like wood paneling, sparks or heat from the wires can cause a fire. You can fix the problem by adding a plastic or metal box extension. This is another problem that many people may not notice themselves, but an experienced residential electrical service provider can find and easy fix.


Many people choose to replace a two-slot outlet with a three-slot one so that they can use three-pronged plug in them. That seems simple enough. However, the outlet has to be grounded in order to do that. To find out if your outlet is grounded before installing a three-slot one, you can purchase a tester. If you find an ungrounded three-slot outlet in your home, just replace it with a two-slot one.


This can cause wires to short-circuit and can be a fire hazard. You can purchase a larger box. These come in plastic and steel. It requires some calculations involving the number of wires and clamps and knowing what gauge wire you have.

What Is a Safety Switch, and Why Do I Need One?

A safety switch is an essential component of ensuring your safety when using electronic devices. However, not all homes have safety switches installed on the circuit breakers, potentially putting their families and homes at risk of electric shock, electrical fires and other complications.

Though a safety switch is a component of a circuit breaker and can often be used in tandem with a surge diverter, these three things are not all the same. Here’s what you need to know about what distinguishes safety switches and why they are so important.

Just about every home is equipped with a circuit breaker. You may find it in your garage or in a closet somewhere in your home. The circuit breaker shuts down the power to a specific room or area of your home when a disturbance in the power is detected. This can often occur when an individual power point becomes overloaded if you have too many appliances plugged into it or a wire short-circuits. While circuit breakers can be incredibly helpful in preventing electrical hazards, they can’t prevent everything, so you’ll need to put additional protections in place to maximise your safety.

A Safety Switch Takes Your Protection to the Next Level

A safety switch goes beyond the capabilities of circuit breakers and surge diverters, giving you the highest possible level of protection. The safety switch attaches to your circuit breaker and serves as an additional layer of protection. When the safety switch detects any fluctuations in the electrical current, it will automatically shut off your power.

How to Test a Safety Switch

Having a safety switch installed in your home is a great way to maximise your family’s safety, but it won’t do you any good if it isn’t working properly. Because of this, you’ll want to test your safety switch periodically to ensure everything is working as it should so that it is ready to go when you need it most. However, you don’t want to create an unsafe scenario just to find out if your safety switch really is working.

Installation of Electric

Control options: wall switch, remote control and/or automated wind sensor

Primrose electrical awnings give you maximum flexibility and choice, while at the same time being easy and cheap to install. When you purchase your awning you can have an indoor wall switch only or a indoor wall switch with remote controls. You can also buy an optional wind, sun and rain sensor to go with the remote control kit. The following summarises how the wiring works for each option.

The reason the cable coming from the awning is 4 core cable is because this allows for two separate electrical circuits – one circuit for opening the awning and one for retracting it. This 4 core cable wires directly into the wall switch. A standard 3 core mains cable comes out of the wall switch to your mains. You can simply attach a standard 13 amp plug to this mains cable, or it can be wired directly into your mains.

The 4 core cable from the awning must be connected to the wall switch, which you fix to the wall. You then run the standard mains cable from the wall switch to an indoor mains socket. This is a relatively simple thing to do and should not need an electrician. It is our understanding that in general this is not notifiable under Part P of the Building Regulations.

Alternatively you can wire the indoor wall switch directly into the mains. You may wish to use a professional electrician to do this. If you do the work yourself it may be notifiable under Part P of the Building Regulations; if in doubt it would be prudent to check by telephoning your local building regulations authority.

have 2.4 metres of what is known as 4 core cable coming out of them. The cable contains two separate circuits – one circuit for opening the awning and one for retracting it. The 4 core cable from the awning must be wired into the receiver box. You then run a standard mains cable from the receiver box to a mains socket. This is a relatively simple thing to do and should not need an electrician.

Do You Know Which Mold Remediation Supplies And Protocols You Need To Follow

How to Remove Mold and Mildew

Mold and mildew can be tricky wherever you happen to live. Sometimes you see them, sometimes you don’t. Sometimes they’re black, sometimes they’re white. Although you can buy products to combat mold, there are common household products likely to be in your home already that will do just as good of a job, if not better.

Know that mold is essentially caused by moisture. Mold is a moisture problem. If you clean up your mold but don’t solve your moisture problem, you’re just inviting mold to come back at a later date. Clean and dry water-logged or water-damaged areas within 24 hours to prevent mold from growing

Call a professional if the mold growth is over 10 square feet. If you’re dealing with some serious mold — over 10 square feet worth — it’s best to call a professional for removal and cleanup

Consider throwing away absorbent or porous materials. Absorbent or porous materials, such as drywall or ceiling tiles, may need to be discarded if the mold damage is severe enough. Because mold can fill the tiny cracks and pores of these materials, it may be difficult to remove the mold completely. Cleaning, in this instance, will only temporarily inhibit mold growth; unless you remove the surface from your home completely, mold will keep coming back.

Don’t paint over or caulk a moldy surface. This is a band-aid treatment, and an ineffective one at that. Surfaces such as walls or tiles that have been painted or caulked over won’t take paint or caulk very well; paint or caulk will simply peel off because it doesn’t have a clean surface to adhere to.

How To Get Rid of Mold

Mold helps convert grapes to wine, milk curd to the blue cheese that goes well with wine, and has even contributed to life-saving medical breakthroughs like penicillin. For all the good some mold can do, however, just as many species can cause serious damage. Mold doesn’t discriminate based on the time of year, cleanliness of a house, or, for the most part, geographical location; it’s rare to find a home without any trace of mold. Mold spores—microscopic reproductive “seeds”—can travel inside on people and pets or through windows and doors. They live particularly well in damp or humid areas such as basements, kitchens, and bathrooms, and spread easily throughout the rest of a building.

Mold isn’t a subject to ignore—these organisms present not only health concerns, but also serious risks to vulnerable building materials. Mold can trap moisture and ruin all things wood, and some varieties can even eat through organic materials like paints and finishes. Since old houses tend to harbor the environments that help mold thrive, the more you know about this common household invader, the more able you’ll be to keep it at bay.

Mold Makeup

Molds are microscopic fungi that grow year-round and thrive in any damp, warm, or humid environment. Mildew, which is marked by its strong odor, is technically a species of mold. Mold you can see, usually as black, brown, or green spots, is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg—such visible areas are spore-producing colonies that release millions of airborne particles throughout your house. Some species even have “tentacles” that reach behind the scenes, stretching a dozen feet or more. From basements to bathrooms, kitchens to crawlspaces, it’s impossible to avoid mold completely.

Like any living organism, mold needs the proper environment and nutrients to survive. The most effective way to stem its spread is to eliminate (or limit) the conditions that foster its growth and create an inhospitable environment by removing water infiltration and getting rid of excess moisture in your home

Moisture creates a prime environment for mold and also destroys wood, finishes, and other building materials by enabling rot. Excess mold growth can add organisms capable of eating wood and other building materials to the mix, and together they can threaten your home’s structural stability. That’s why it’s important to work to reduce excess moisture and eliminate water infiltration into your home.

Best Mold Prevention Products for Your Home

Preventing mold growth in your home is more of a holistic endeavor and not something that can be achieved by simply cleaning an outbreak with paper towels and soap. Although you may seemingly wipe away the area to prevent initial mold growth, spores can still thrive and begin ravaging your home. Instead of using up all your soap

As their name suggests, air purifiers clean the air, removing contaminants and mold spores by passing them through a HEPA filter. Air purifiers work well to prevent mold growth by keeping airborne spores from finding a suitable environment in your home. They are best placed in bathrooms and kitchens, as well as near the corners, doors, and furniture of other rooms. Available in portable and whole-home sizes, air purifiers kill spores and halt mold growth.

A dehumidifier reduces humidity levels within a nearby area and removes unforeseen moisture build-up in your home. Mold requires a dark, warm, and humid habitat to grow and reproduce, and a dehumidifier prevents this habitat by removing moisture. Dehumidifiers run quietly and without interrupting your daily activities and are available in different sizes to accommodate each room of your home.

Also known as sodium tetraborate, borax is an odorless mineral that is used as a natural pesticide and a household cleaner, as well as being a prominent mold killer. Relatively cheap to purchase and found at almost any supermarket, borax provides the compounds to protect areas from mold growth, as well as killing existing mold. Borax can be found in laundry detergents, stain removers, and other cleaning products, and can also be purchased by itself. Combining borax with other soaps during mopping and cleaning adds a protective layer against mold growth in your home.

Baking soda is a staple in most homes, but do you know of its mold prevention properties? Baking soda provides the means to both kill and prevent mold growth in your home without being harmful to kids or pets. Baking soda also acts as a deodorizer, eliminating foul odors within a nearby area. As a rule, you should keep an open box of baking soda in your fridge and consider mixing a tablespoon of baking soda in a spray bottle with water to act as a quick mold killer.

Mold Removal Do’s and Don’ts

You’ve made a horrifying discovery – mold in your home! You’re searching online to figure out what to do now. Well, don’t panic, we have compiled a list of Mold Removal Do’s and Don’ts to help educate you and point you in the right direction for help. It is important to know that mold found in your home can be hazardous to your health and potentially cause severe structural damage

take a look at what you should and shouldn’t do:

Do open up the windows and doors to let in the fresh air and improve indoor air quality. A cross draft will help drop humidity levels and promote circulation. Plus, since mold thrives in dark and warm environments, it will shrivel and die from sun exposure.

Don’t DIY mold removal! You could contaminate more areas in your home by releasing airborne mold spores. If cleanup is not thorough or mishandled you could be putting your health and that of your family or pets at great risk.

Do run a dehumidifier to help reduce humidity levels. Ideally Relative Humidity (RH) should be between 30% – 50% but not over 60%. Utah averages 55% RH annually, with the highest humidity from November to February.

Don’t use bleach. It seems like a logical solution and will kill live mold on non-porous surfaces, but not the airborne spores. Surfaces with porous materials, like wood or drywall need further remediation to completely neutralize mold.

Do keep pets, kids and yourself away from the affected area. Prolonged exposure to mold may lead to the development of, or aggravate symptoms of asthma in some kids. Pets are also vulnerable to respiratory and pulmonary difficulties from mold exposure.

Don’t run a fan over affected surfaces. It will stir up mold spores and blow them to other areas of your home, increasing contamination. However, a built-in bathroom fan is recommended to keep moisture down and prevent mildew/mold from forming.

Do take a break from housework, around the mold that is. Avoid vacuuming or disturbing the area in any way. Leave the hard work to the pros. With specialized knowledge and equipment, Utah Flood Cleanup will locate and remediate mold, spores and contain the water source for you.

Don’t think that a coat of paint or caulk can fix the problem. Dangerous mold particles will remain. Because the mold is still living, paint or varnish will not adhere properly and begin to peel, exposing the mold again.

Do educate yourself about mold prevention to avoid another mold infestation in the future. We recommend applying these tips: keep the bathroom dry, use exhaust fans, fix any leaks as soon as possible and keep the basement free from clutter.

Don’t sleep in a room where you’ve found mold. Even moderate exposure to toxic mold spores will pose health risks for those with respiratory problems and those with a weak immune system. Health complications from prolonged exposure can also affect otherwise healthy individuals.

Do turn on the air conditioner in hot summer months. Keep your AC at 77 degrees to keep mold from flourishing and your home comfortable. Running exhaust fans in the bathroom and kitchen will also help keep both the temperature and humidity levels down.

Natural Mold Killers That Work (& Why You Should Use Them)

Knowing about natural mold killers and how to use them is good to keep your home safe.

The toxins produced by mold are dangerous. The good news is that you can get rid of mold naturally, and make sure it never comes back (mold spores are always there, but you can keep them from flourishing).

Mold is made from fungus. These comprise of small organisms that vary in color and grow via tiny airborne spores. All of us are exposed to mold every single day.

The problem comes when the mold spores start to reproduce. This is when they go from harmless to dangerous. Mold growth releases spores into the air and then you inhale them. This is when health problems arise.

Mold cannot grow without moisture. So the solution is to reduce the moisture in high risk mold growth areas. You can always clean up the mold with these natural mold killers, for example, but if you don’t nip the problem at the bud, the mold issues will persist.

mold killers consist of mostly 100% natural mold killers, plus 2 more generally safe mold killing solutions that are way better than chemical store bought mold killing death concoctions as long as you handle with care (ammonia and bleach; 2 that should never be mixed together but in their own right do pretty good with mold on hard surfaces).

Why Should Companies Shift To Payroll Service

How do you ensure accuracy in payroll?

Payroll can be confusing and laborious. Because of that, payroll errors can easily spring up. They can creep into your payroll process with little notice.

Payroll involves employees’ wages, governments’ taxes, and employment laws. You must keep an accurate payroll; otherwise, you might face back payments, penalties, and interest.

To maintain an accurate payroll, use the following tips.

1. Classify workers correctly

You must accurately classify your workers as either employees or independent contractors. This classification is not arbitrary and is extremely important.

With employees, you need to collect and pay taxes, pay overtime wages, and follow minimum wage laws. These things are not necessary for independent contractors. Contractors pay their own taxes, don’t earn overtime wages, and they set and negotiate their rates.

To determine if a worker is an employee or contractor, use the three-prong test from the IRS. You will look at behavioral control, financial control, and your relationship with the worker. If you still need help classifying the worker, you can file Form SS-8 with the IRS.

As a note, your state might have additional determination requirements. Check with your state department of labor to find out if there are any other rules you should follow when classifying employees.

If you classify a worker incorrectly, you could owe back wages and taxes, interest, and penalties. You need to have employees in your payroll system. Independent contractors should not be on your payroll.

2. Automate your payroll

If you use a manual payroll system, you can end up with a lot of mistakes. You might punch the wrong number into the calculator, record a number in the wrong spot, or forget to include something in the payroll process.

Automating payroll can reduce the chance of errors. To do this, use an online payroll software. The software will calculate pay and taxes. The software should be accurate, so you don’t have to worry about errors sneaking up on you.

3. Track time and attendance

You need to accurately track how much time your employees work. This is especially true for employees who earn hourly wages and employees who are eligible for overtime wages.

You need a way to track time and attendance. Online software is a good option because employees can log into their account and log their start and end times. Because it’s online, even remote employees can use it.

Time and attendance software can also help you prevent time theft. You can review time cards before you run payroll to make sure they are accurate. You can compare them to work schedules and agreements to verify their validity.

4. Keep up with payroll updates

Payroll is ever changing. Governments are always passing new laws. Tax rates and minimum wages often change annually. You need to dedicate some time to keep up with changes.

You can get information from multiple sources. Check news sources that regularly report on payroll-related changes. You can subscribe to newsletters from government sources and niche blogs. Make sure you check your mail for rate notices from your state and local governments. Seek out information from local business organizations.

Sure, keeping up with payroll updates can take a lot of time. But, it’s worth it because you can save time and money in the long run by avoiding errors.

If you use payroll software, the provider should update the software whenever there are changes to standardized tax rates. But, you must still keep up with laws and individual business rates.

5. Conduct payroll audits

You should conduct regular payroll audits to verify that your payroll records are accurate. You might conduct an audit on a quarterly or annual basis.

When you do payroll audits, you make sure that your payroll information is correct. Essentially, you’ll make sure that all the numbers add up and money is going to the right place.

Check employee wages. Make sure they are calculated correctly. Verify that all deductions are withheld at the right time. Check that you calculated your employer taxes correctly.

Input v/s Output validation

Post the preliminary payroll process, match the total number of line items in the source file (the one received from input provider) with the payroll results, by each payroll element. This will ensure you have not missed out data of any employee. Additionally, match the total values of such inputs with the payroll results to ensure the values are entered correctly too.

For example: You have received an input file from the sales department with instruction to pay incentives worth Rs.250,000/- to 200 employees. Once you complete the entry of this data in the payroll system, it should provide a report showing the number of line items as 200 (number of impacted employees) under the wage type “Incentives” & also the total value of the line items should amount to Rs 250,000. This exercise of matching a source data with payroll results is called ‘input v/s output validation’

Payroll Accuracy

This was a question raised in a recent article published by learnpayroll, The Learn Centre Ltd.  The answer would appear to be – Payroll Accuracy is very important!  They refer to a survey put together by SD Worx where 44% of respondents reported they would consider leaving their job if they were paid incorrectly.

The article looks at various questions and the response of employees.  There seems to be some variation between countries, and a surprisingly high proportion of employees perceive they have been paid incorrectly in the past.  We have not seen the questionnaire and cannot comment on how representative it is, but it is interesting to see the responses and the choice of questions.  Payroll accuracy is certainly something that needs considering.

Tax code changes

The most common reason we have questions raised is about changes in employee’s net pay, which is most often due to a tax code change.  This may be reported as a payroll inaccuracy, but obviously is in the hands of HMRC, and therefore although the tax code may be wrong it will have been applied correctly.

The employee should have a notice from HMRC before the code is changed, but these notices do not always arrive.  Once a code is applied the employee should contact HMRC; we provide the details they need on the payslip.

Payroll Accuracy – The Issues

There are three main areas of opportunity for payroll inaccuracy; preparation errors, processing errors or reporting errors

Preparation Errors

We would suggest keep the amount of work and information required to a minimum at this stage to help eliminate errors.  You should not really need to generate salaries every time if there is no change.  If a pay rate, payment or deduction is the same every time why risk a data corruption by reproducing the data outside of the payroll?

Time and attendance systems are worthwhile using for hourly paid staff; make sure you have a system you trust, and manual adjustments can be made if necessary.  It is better to send a report directly from the time and attendance software than try and transpose it, although it has to be the correct report.

Make sure you have an audit trail for all changes.  If a member of staff has a salary deduction you need to know why, as this could be reported as an error.  You should also keep new starter details as provided by your new starter, as they may give you incorrect information.

Instructions should be precise, with adequate unambiguous information, and the employees accurately identified.

Processing Errors

Once the payroll information has been prepared the actually processing begins and RTI files, payslips, pension deductions, BACS payments etc are prepared.  Data is taken, processed and results in a payroll.

Considerable care should be taken at this stage, as simple human error can again very easily creep in.  The information needs to be correctly handled, as the aim is to be compliant with HMRC and The Pension Regulator guidelines.

It is useful if there are checks within the system to make sure everything is compliant, and totals can also be checked against any totals in the preparation information.  As many checks as possible at this stage can help eliminate errors before the payroll is returned.

At Payroll Options we have multiple data validation and RTI compliance validation checks.  We also process the payroll in parallel with two members of staff, cross checking by computer to help eliminate the opportunity for human error.

If the payroll is processed in house it is useful to have some separation between preparation and processing, and an audit trail should still be maintained.

Reporting Errors

This is an interesting area, as it would imply the payroll has been processed correctly, the correct information presented to HMRC, but then an issue with the reports.  The reports must accurately reflect what has occurred within the payroll, as these will form the basis of financial journals and potentially reporting to pension companies and payments to HMRC.

Consistent reporting is the key here.  If the reports are the same every time the payroll is processed, then there should be no opportunity for incorrectly configured reports to be used.  It is useful if the reports are presented to someone other than the person processing the payroll.

It is possible to have accurate payroll, but processes must be maintained and all stages must be understood and communicate effectively.  There must also be adequate feedback and any issues quickly addressed.

Tips For Choosing Software For Your Residential Cleaning Business

Areas Your Guests Notice Are Clean

Nothing is worse than having guests over when your house is a mess. First off, even if you are not a messy person, a messy house makes you look like one. Sometimes it is not your fault, you might be really busy and do not have the time to clean your home from floor to attic. But not having time isn’t a good excuse to have when your house is a pigsty. Also, being busy shouldn’t mean the difference between entertaining and staying cooped up in your home all the time. Your home is your palace and you should want to keep it clean. If not for you, for your guests.

Your guests might be the nicest people in the world, but even they know the difference between what is clean and what isn’t. By seeing that you have a dirty house, they might think of you as lacking in hygiene or responsibility. This might not seem like a big deal with your friends, but say someone really important came over one night—perhaps your in-laws? Of course they are making small notes in their head about whether you are a good match for their child. Don’t disappoint them, make a good impression with a clean house.

Your living room should be neat

Your living room is your main entertainment area. This is the spot most of your guests will stay when you are entertaining. Make sure your couch is vacuumed and your coffee table is cleared. Nothing disappoints an in-law more than clutter. A cluttered house to them, means you might be messy—or worse, lazy.

Your kitchen should be wiped down

Nothing will disgust a mother-in-law more than a messy kitchen. Keep your sink clear, your trash empty, and, of course, make sure the countertops are wiped down with cleaning solution. If your guests lean against your kitchen counter and pull away with food on their sleeve, that is a huge let-down. Plus, most of their night is ruined because all they will be thinking about is the food they will now have to scrub out of their clothing. Clothing, they probably really liked, because they took it out to a social gathering. So, wiping your countertops is really important if you don’t want your guests secretly screaming at you for not wiping down the counters.

Dusting mantles and bookshelves

The following is more geared for the awkward moments of your evening when your guests start looking around the living room. This casual look-about often occurs when your guests don’t know you that well, like your boss, a co-worker, or your in-laws. You need to keep your common areas well dusted to ensure you don’t get bad looks from your mother-in-law. Especially, when she does a small circle in your living room looking at all your photos and wall art. Be safe, keep everything dusted.

Easy Tips for Simplifying ADHD and House Cleaning

Depending on your personality, you might sometimes feel like ADHD and house cleaning consume your life. Everywhere you look, you have organization and clutter issues due to how your ADHD brain works. Then whenever you try to complete a cleaning task, you just get overwhelmed and give up.

Regularly Practice Decluttering

When it comes to ADHD and house cleaning it seems like most of the time you continually fight against clutter. Many people with ADHD have difficulty with organization. How the ADHD mind works with moving from one idea to another, it makes it difficult to keep track of things and to make sure you always put things back to where they belong. As a result, whether or not they intend to, many people with ADHD end up with a lot of clutter.

Use Bins for Organization

To help you with your decluttering efforts and with ADHD and house cleaning, you should also consider using bins for organization. Clutter happens because we don’t put things where they really belong. Over time then, we just collect piles of stuff without a place for it to go.

Set a Cleaning Schedule

Another great thing to remember when it comes to ADHD and house cleaning is that if you don’t plan to clean, you won’t ever do it. We all lead busy lives, and we all have tons of excuses for why we can’t get something done. When it comes to house cleaning, for most all of us, we always have something else we’d rather do. If we don’t schedule time for house cleaning then, we will almost always do something else instead.

Have a Cleaning Chart

Another reason we run into issues with ADHD and house cleaning is because we lose track of what we have done and what we have yet to do. The ADHD brain quickly moves from one thing to the next with little time to focus or reflect. This quick processing means we can lose track of where we are with our tasks.

Cleaning Tips and Tricks to Make Your Home Shine

Clean the Exhaust Fan

If the grille on your bathroom exhaust fan is clogged with dust, try a trick that’s faster and more effective than vacuuming. Here’s how to clean a bathroom fan: Turn on the fan and blast out the dust with “canned air.” The fan will blow the dust outside. This works on the return air grilles of your central heating/cooling system too. Run the system so that the return airflow will carry the dust to the filter. You’ll find canned air at home centers and hardware stores, usually in the electrical supplies aisle. Caution: The cans contain chemical propellants, not just air. Don’t let children play with them.

Beat and Shake Area Rugs

Vacuum large area rugs at least once a week. But also take them outside three or four times a year for a more thorough cleaning and forhow to clean dust. Drape them over a fence or clothesline and beat them with a broom or tennis racket. A good beating removes much more dust than vacuuming. Take smaller rugs outside to for a vigorous shaking every week.

Do Air Cleaners Reduce Dusting?

An effective air cleaner removes large and small particles from the air in a single room. Within that space, it can relieve allergy or asthma symptoms and even reduce smoke and cooking odors. But don’t expect it to relieve you of dusting duty. Air cleaners are sized to filter a small area, so only a small portion of the airborne dust in your home will ever reach the unit. For air cleaners to have a real effect on overall dust levels, you would need one unit in every room. Buy an air cleaner. While you’re debating the value of an air cleaner, take care of cleaning your air conditioner, it’s easier than you think.

Ditch Your Carpeting

In most homes, carpet is by far the biggest dust reservoir. It’s a huge source of fibers and absorbs dust like a giant sponge. Even the padding underneath holds dust, which goes airborne with each footstep. Although ripping out your wall-to-wall carpet may sound radical, it’s the best thing you can do if you suffer from serious allergies. For how to remove dust from air the best thing you can do is to replace carpeting with hard floorings like laminate, wood or tile, and wet mop it regularly (with a microfiber cloth) instead of sweeping.

Dust with Your Dryer

Blankets, pillows, slipcovers, drapes and other textiles not only trap household dust, but they create it as they shed and disintegrate. Curtains and drapes, in particular, get dusty because they absorb moisture and dirt from the outside and act as a landing pad for dust from ceiling fans and air vents. The best idea for how to clean dust is to buy machine-washable items and launder them twice a year (OK, at least once). For non-machine-washable textiles, throw them in the dryer on the air-fluff setting (no heat) for 20 minutes with a damp towel. The damp towel will attract pet hair, and the tumbling movement and airflow will remove the smaller particles for you.


cleaning services to meet every need. We can arrange weekly, biweekly, monthly, or one-time cleanings. Your cleaners will also be glad to customize a cleaning schedule tailored to your individual needs and budget.

recommends cleanings every two weeks. This allows your home to remain in good condition without the build up of dirt and dust. However, we are happy to cater to your needs.


General cleaning in all rooms

Cobwebs removed

Waste baskets emptied

Tops of doorways dusted

Pictures and collectibles dusted

Window sills dusted

Ceiling fan blades dusted

One sliding glass door spot cleaned

Floors vacuumed and/or mopped

if arranged in advance, perform many extra services. Common requests include:

Detail cleaning of blinds

Detail cleaning of ceiling fans

Clean out fireplace (must be unused for 72 hours, minimum)

Clean additional sliding glass doors

Remove books from bookshelves and clean shelves

Vacuum furniture (one set of furniture vacuuming included with standard service)

Clean underneath area rugs

Detail cleaning of baseboards

Clean woodwork

Clean window interiors

Clean cabinets and interiors

Sweep porch

Sweep garage

Wash walls, ceilings and doors




Range hood and stove top cleaned

Inside and outside of microwave cleaned

Refrigerator front and top cleaned as possible

Back splash and counter tops cleaned and disinfected

Sink cleaned

Floors vacuumed and mopped

Garden window above sink spot cleaned

Cabinets spot cleaned

Appliances wiped down


Tile and behind tub cleaned

Toilet cleaned and disinfected

Mirror and tile ledges cleaned

Counter tops cleaned

Sink bowl cleaned

Light fixtures dusted

All chrome shined

Floors vacuumed and mopped

Cleaning Services

Residential Cleaning

Have you ever thought, if only I had a self-cleaning house? can’t quite get you there, but can help you find a trusted, local house cleaning service. Enter Taskers. From scrubbing your floors to wiping your counters, or even changing your sheets –– our house cleaning Taskers can do it all.

Do I need to be home while they clean my house?

Nope. When you book your Tasker for your house cleaning service, you’ll communicate expectations. Think: how to get in and lock up after, which cleaning products you’d like used (and where to find them in the house), and more

I need an extra day just to catch up on laundry. Can a Tasker help?

Yep! While we can’t give you an extra day just for laundry, we can do it for you. Taskers can help with house cleaning, tidying, laundry –– you name it; they can do it! Simply describe your to-do list in detail (including laundry, washing the windows, emptying the dishwasher, making the beds, and more), book with a Tasker who is skilled in those areas, and communicate directly with him or her to share any specifics

I need regular help –– can I book a weekly house cleaning service?

Absolutely! Whatever you need to help make your life run smoother, Taskers are here to help. Weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, or one-time cleaning, house cleaners are happy to help your house sparkle on your schedule

How do I know I can trust the cleaners in my home?

We’re so glad you asked. Your peace of mind is so important to us. It’s why we conduct background checks on all of Taskers. Rest assured every Tasker you book has passed. What’s more, we know how important it is to hear feedback from other clients, that’s why we encourage you to browse the ratings and reviews of Taskers.

Pros And Cons Of Being A Veterinarian Technician

Why are vets so important?

Today’s veterinarians are the only doctors educated to protect the health of both animals and people. They work hard to address the health and welfare needs of every species of animal. Veterinarians also play critical roles in environmental protection, research, food safety, and public health.

Protecting the health of animals and society

Employment opportunities for veterinarians include such diverse areas as clinical practice, teaching and research, regulatory medicine, public health, and the uniformed services.

Private or corporate clinical practice

In the United States, approximately two-thirds of veterinarians work in private or corporate clinical practice, providing veterinary care for a wide range of species. Many treat only traditional or exotic pets such as dogs, cats, birds, small mammals (e.g., hamsters, guinea pigs), reptiles, and fish. Some veterinarians exclusively treat horses. Others treat a combination of species. Some veterinarians limit their practice to the care of farm/ranch animals and advise owners on production medicine and protecting our nation’s food supply from farm to fork.

Teaching and research

Veterinarians in academia instruct veterinary students, veterinary technology students, other medical professionals, and scientists. Veterinary college faculty members conduct research, teach, provide care for animals in the veterinary teaching hospital, and develop continuing education programs to help practicing veterinarians acquire new knowledge and skills.

Research veterinarians employed at universities, colleges, governmental agencies, or in industry are finding new ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent animal and human health disorders. These veterinarians have made many important contributions to human health. For example, veterinarians made discoveries that helped control malaria and yellow fever, solved the mystery of botulism, produced an anticoagulant used to treat some people with heart disease, and identified the cause of West Nile virus infection. They also developed and refined techniques such as permanent artificial limbs and new treatments for joint disease and broken bones.

Veterinarians just have a way with words

Pet owners trust their veterinarians when it comes to maintaining the health and well-being of their pets. Why? Veterinarians know their stuff! Whether diagnosing sick animals, recommending important treatments, or explaining complicated medical conditions—veterinarians pull from their extensive knowledge and experience to ensure the best patient outcomes possible. Plus, they keep it simple so the average pet owner can understand and remember important information.

Veterinarians truly want what’s best for the pet

Thanks to the breadth of their expertise, veterinarians can use their extensive knowledge of animal medicine to plot the most effective, budget-friendly methods of treatment for sick and injured patients. Although maintaining pet health is a business, veterinarians make the effort to truly prioritize the well-being of pets and their owners during every visit—and beyond.

Veterinarians go out of their way to help minimize stress for their patients

Out of kindness and consideration for each individual pet, Veterinarians know that not all patients will react positively when on the exam table. As such, they are respectful of making any necessary accommodations to ensure the visit is as painless as possible for pets and pet owners alike.

Are you suited to be a veterinarian?

Veterinarians have distinct personalities. They tend to be investigative individuals, which means they’re intellectual, introspective, and inquisitive. They are curious, methodical, rational, analytical, and logical. Some of them are also realistic, meaning they’re independent, stable, persistent, genuine, practical, and thrifty.

What is the workplace of a Veterinarian like?

Small animal veterinarians typically work in veterinary clinics or veterinary hospitals, or both. Large animal veterinarians often spend more time traveling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them (zoos, farms, etc).

As opposed to a human doctor’s office, which only has exam rooms, a veterinarian’s office is more like a hospital with a full pharmacy. Waiting rooms are available often with separate areas for dogs, cats, and exotics.

Reasons to Become a Veterinarian

Excellent Salary

Veterinary medicine is one of the animal careers that can offer a high-paying salary, though you do have to take into consideration all the educational costs of obtaining that coveted DVM degree. Veterinarians earn a median salary of $89,000 as of early 2019, with a salary range between $50,000 and $200,000 per year. Those with additional specialty training or board certifications can earn even higher salaries.

Community Interaction

Vets get to meet many members of the community by virtue of seeing their animals for appointments and emergencies. They also have opportunities to educate and advise owners about a variety of important health issues, such as spay/neuter programs and proper nutrition for their animals.


Some detective work must be done to evaluate each case, and a key trait of a veterinarian is that they enjoy this challenge. The animal obviously can’t explain what is bothering them, so you’ll have to figure things out based on the physical exam, lab tests, and owner comments.

Lifetime Learning

Veterinarians never stop learning new things. Continuing education hours are required to renew your license to practice medicine, and most vets want to learn new techniques and innovations even when there is no official requirement.

The industry constantly evolves, and it is important to keep up with the latest developments so you can provide the best possible care to your clients. Vets can pursue board certification in a host of ​specialty areas that require a great deal of additional training and hands-on experience.

Professional Independence

While you may start out working for an established clinic, you have the option of starting your own practice, perhaps even a mobile practice, which greatly reduces startup costs. You can become a partner in an established clinic if they are looking to expand or if other vets are planning to retire. Most vets have a degree of flexibility in their schedules, particularly as they become more established.

The Pros And Cons Of Engine Rebuilding

When should an engine be rebuilt?

What is an Engine Rebuild?

When you rebuild an engine, you’ll often remove the engine from the vehicle and take it apart completely. Engines can also be rebuilt “in frame,” which means they are rebuilt without being removed. If you’ve heard of a vehicle getting its engine “inframed,” that was a reference to an in-frame rebuild.

After the engine is completely taken apart, it will be cleaned and check for issues. Any damaged parts can be replaced. Then, when the engine is put back together, all new seals, gaskets, and lubricants are used.

The parts that are replaced tend to be things like gaskets, bearings, O rings, seals, oil pump, cylinder heads and oil coolers. Sometimes, more major parts may also need to be replaced. These can include the crankshafts, pistons, and camshafts.

If the engine was seriously damaged before being rebuilt, you might also need to do more intensive work. For example, you might have to bore the engine block or the cylinders.

How to Know when the Old Engine has to Be Rebuilt

In addition to stalling out in traffic and leaking fluid, there are a few telltale indications of an engine that is about to die.

The Car Won’t Start

If the car simply won’t turn over, the first thing you want to do is calm down and check the battery. Make sure that all of the wires in the engine are properly attached. Loose wiring can cause many an engine problem.

Make sure there is nothing wrong with the starter motor. The starter motor is a simple apparatus that carries a tiny gear wheel that attaches to a large gear ring that sits around the rim of the engine’s flywheel. It costs around $350 for parts and labor if you should need to replace it.

If the battery is working and there is nothing wrong with the starter motor, your car probably has a serious problem.

Exhaust Leaks:

If a dark cloud of smoke follows you where ever you drive, the pipes themselves may be damaged or the engine’s seals may be falling apart. Loose seals can often cause the oil in a car to burn too hot. Those seals may be located at the bottom of the engine and the engine might need to be removed in order to replace those seals.

You Hear a Knocking When the Car Starts

If your car knocks and clatters when you start it, it normally means that the pistons in the cylinders are loose and moving around a lot. The only way to fix this is to have the engine rebuilt piston by piston.

A Broken Timing Belt

A timing belt is part of the internal combustion engine. The device contemporizes the rotation of the crankshaft and the camshaft. This causes the valves of the engine to open and close when they are supposed to. When the timing belt breaks it can destroy the interworkings of an engine. Replacing the belt requires a good deal of labor.

Is The Cost of Repairing An Engine Greater Than The Cost of Your Vehicle?

You thought all you needed was routine maintenance, but you’re going to need an engine rebuild. Your truck isn’t as powerful as it used to be and there’s a cloud of blue smoke out the tailpipe. It might be a very sudden thing – a clunk and a bang, then your engine stops running with a certain finality.

When your engine goes, you know. It can happen in a bunch of different ways, though. The mechanic could let you know your engine is all sludged up when you go for an oil change, which is why it’s been knocking more and more.

With just these few examples, but you get the idea. Engine failure comes in all different forms. Often, the same repair, an engine rebuild, can take care of your engine problems. But take note: it’s not an inexpensive repair. And in the end, you might find out that a complete engine replacement is necessary after you diagnose your engine.

Reinstalling the Engine

Complete other projects which might be necessary in the rebuild. If you’re doing a complete overhaul, it’s likely you’ll want to do other jobs at the same time while you’ve got the chance. Likewise, it’s usually inadvisable to hook up your freshly-rebuilt engine to a transmission with 200,000 miles (320,000 km) on it. You might want to:

  • Install a transmission
  • Replace the air conditioner
  • Change out the radiator
  • Get a new starter

Prep the engine. Fill the new oil filter with motor oil before installing, and with break-in oil recommended by the engine rebuilder. Prime the oiling system by manually operating the oil pump. Fill the cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of new antifreeze coolant and distilled water. You’ll also probably need to install:

  • OEM spark plugs
  • new distributor cap, rotor and spark plug wires
  • new air filter, fuel filter, crankcase filter and PCV valve

Lower the engine with the hoist. It’s important to keep the engine level while lowering it into place. Use caution, and help. Fasten it to the mounting brackets and reconnect all the hoses, pipes, and wires, having ensured that they’re all compatible with any new parts you’ve installed. Reinstall the radiator and hood, being sure to keep anything meltable clear of the exhaust headers.

Go through a careful initial start-up. Set the emergency brake and block up the wheels before you start the ignition.Turn the ignition. If the engine doesn’t start, check the fuel delivery system.

  • Make sure to monitor the oil pressure gauge and the temp gauge. If you notice full oil pressure, cut the engine immediately and check for fluid leaks. If you notice anything unusual, stop the engine immediately.

Break it in. After you get the engine running reliably, rev it to 2000 rpm to thin out any oil on the camshaft. You’ll want to run the engine at various speeds between 1800 and 2500 rpm for at least 20 minutes.

  • Pull the radiator cap to check for adequate flow or leaks before it gets too hot. Check that the battery is charging.

Change the oil and filter after your first 100 miles (160 km). It’s important to ease the engine into its life, and it’s common to change the oil after about 100 or 200 miles (160 or 320 km) initially, then every thousand miles for at least the first three months of use.

New Engines

New engines are factory manufactured replacement engines. They contain all brand new parts, and as long as you purchase a brand new engine that is the same type/size as your previous engine, the engines will be completely identical to your old engine and will work perfectly with all the parts in your vehicle.

New Engine Considerations

A newly purchased engine is guaranteed to arrive in perfect condition and run well as long as it is installed properly. New engines are almost always covered by warranties. The downside to a new engine is the cost, however. New factory engines will often cost you several thousand dollars ,and higher end, more powerful engines can cost well above $10,000 as of 2011.

Rebuilt Engines

A rebuilt engine is an engine that has been used for the majority of its useful lifespan and has been completely overhauled to extend its lifespan. A rebuilt engine has been taken apart completely and had its internal components either repaired, refinished or completely replaced with new parts. A rebuilt engine is not a new engine, but when an engine is rebuilt properly it can significantly extend the lifespan of your vehicle. A rebuilt engine is not the same as a re-manufactured engine. A re-manufactured engine has all new parts and has been completely overhauled to original factory or high performance specifications.

Rebuilt Engine Considerations

Rebuilding an engine takes a decent amount of mechanical skill, and not all rebuilt engines are built equally, which can make buying a rebuilt engine or having your existing engine rebuilt a bit of a gamble. To ensure success, verify that the person or company you are having rebuild the engine or are buying the engine from has a good reputation for rebuilding engines and offers a solid warranty on its work. You will also want to ensure the engine was fully rebuilt; sticking a new head gasket on an engine does not constitute a full rebuild as the pistons, rods, crank and cam will still have 200,000 or so miles on them. Rebuilt engines are often significantly less expensive than new engines, but you need to do your research ahead of time before you make a purchase.

Learning How To Look After A Pet Snake

How to Get Rid of Snakes

Given that it’s difficult for homeowners to easily identify venomous from non-venomous snakes, it’s better to call for professional pest control when you encounter a snake near your home. Let’s first speak to the most common non-venomous species

Garter Snake

Most of these are harmless, but some have a mild venom which cannot harm humans. Garter snakes will stay near water sources and are most often seen near marshes, gardens, and meadows. This species also has a sense of timing, being the first to emerge from brumation (a slowing of metabolism during winter) and the first to mate. The garter snake will move about during daytime to scout for prey such as frog, fish, salamanders, and even birds.

Water Snake

While non-venomous, these snakes are easily mistaken for the poisonous water moccasin (or cottonmouth). As the name implies, you’ll find it near a body of water – a favorite location from which to feed on fish, frogs, toads, and salamanders. This species is characterized by its narrower, rounder head and a slender body. Unfortunately, water snakes will act aggressively when approached.

Gopher Snake

Looks are deceiving with gopher snakes since they appear menacing and even resemble rattlesnakes – but are actually non-venomous. Yet their loud hiss and vibrating tail makes them even harder to tell apart from a rattlesnake. Fortunately, their favorite homesites are not densely populated with humans. Gopher snakes live in forests, desert areas, prairies, rocky bluffs, and thickets. Their name comes from their taste for gophers (their preferred prey), though they also eat foxes and coyotes.

Common Venomous Snakes

Each species below is a member of the pit viper family, meaning these snakes have heat-sensing pits between the eye and nostril on each side of the head. These pits are used to sense changes in temperature, which typically leads to prey. All pit vipers are also notable for their triangular heads, thick bodies, and ridge-like scales.  Again, it’s best to call for pest control if you find one on your property.


What Are Snakebites?

A snakebite is an injury that happens when you’re bitten by a snake. A snakebite can be dangerous if a snake is venomous

How snakes bite

Snakes that have venom have modified salivary glands. Venom is a form of saliva and probably evolved to help the reptile digest food. Some venom is more toxic than others and can be useful in killing prey.

During envenomation (the bite that injects venom or poison), the venom passes from the venom gland through a duct into the snake’s fangs, and finally into its prey. Snake venom is made up of substances that have different effects.

In simple terms, these proteins can be divided into 4 categories:

Cytotoxins cause local tissue damage.

Hemotoxins cause internal bleeding.

Neurotoxins affect the nervous system.

Cardiotoxins act directly on the heart.

Who Is at Risk for Snakebites?

It has been estimated that up to 1.8 million snakebites occur worldwide each year, causing 20,000 to 94,000 deaths. Snakebites are more common in tropical regions and in areas that are mostly agricultural. In these areas, large numbers of people coexist with numerous snakes.

How to Get Rid of Snakes

There’s nothing quite as upsetting as finding snakes on your property. Although these creatures are often very beneficial to the habitat they find themselves in, most everyone has a natural aversion to serpents.

However, as with many things we see in movies and on television, the danger from snakes is largely overblown. The benefits they provide often outweigh the downsides of having them around.

That said, it’s often a situation where a snake is in the garden or even in the house. In which case removing the snake is always going to be the best option available to you!

You may be tempted to try killing the snake. But unless it’s definitely a poisonous viper you have no reason to try killing it. In fact even a poisonous snake will prefer to run rather than fight

It’s an important statistic that most bites occur when people are trying to attack or kill the snake, instead of letting it go it’s own way and then sealing up their house and property behind it.

Snakes looking for a cool spot during heat of the day

Like humans this time of year, just about all God’s critters are looking for some shade, even those that give a good many people the shivers. Despite being cold-blooded animals, snakes don’t like to get too hot in the summertime, and you may find a variety of reptiles seeking shelter from the hot summer sun.

It’s so hot. It’s so wet. It’s so dry. Some people say they haven’t seen a snake in X number of years, but there’s got to be snakes around. By some coincidence they see a couple in a short amount of time. Because they hadn’t seen any in a long time, they think they are suddenly overrun with snakes. But they’re really not.

“If you have a healthy environment, you’re going to have snakes. That’s the way it is. If you have a field next to you and they’re doing construction work or something, they may run a few snakes onto your property. That might be the phenomenon that accounts for you seeing a couple of snakes.”

“Some people still don’t realize that any snake that lives around water is not a cottonmouth,” he said. “There are many more snakes that live in and amongst the water other than a cottonmouth.”

The venomous species include the pit vipers: cottonmouth, copperhead and the three rattlesnakes — eastern diamondback, timber and pygmy. The sixth venomous snake is the extremely rare coral snake.

Snake Control: How To Get Rid of Snakes

If you think that the snake you’re dealing with might be venomous, you should call an animal control specialist without hesitation. Even if you think it might not be venomous, it’s always preferable to call for professional help. Animal control will easily trap and remove the snake from your premises.

Snakes are among the most startling discoveries to encounter in your home or place of business. They are especially a problem when the snake is aggressive and carries venom.

Snakes are distinctive and very recognizable to people due to their unique traits. They can vary greatly in color from black, to red, green, many other colorful patterns in between. Some species of snakes are extremely dangerous and their bites could prove fatal to humans. In the United States alone there are 4 types of venomous snakes that can cause serious injury or can prove fatal to humans. These snakes are Rattlesnakes, Copperheads, Cottonmouths, and Coral Snakes.

While most species of snake prefer habitats out in the wild, they can venture upon residential areas when looking for food. If your yard has lots of yard debris, logs, rocks, woodpiles, and harborage areas where they can hide, snakes will likely visit your lawn. This is even more likely if you have moisture in your backyard, or parts that don’t drain well as this will attract frogs, lizards, birds, and other small animals which snakes can feed on.

Identification is extremely important to apply control. Before you can treat you need to make sure you’re dealing with non-venomous snakes or a possibly venomous snake. Since their appearance is widely known we’ll describe the common characteristics of the four types of snakes that are venomous in the United States.

Rattlesnakes may have different coloring or patterns, but they are easily identifiable by their rattles or tails which they shake when they feel threatened. The peculiar trait of having rattles for tails is what makes these snakes unique.

Copperhead snakes can vary in color from reddish to golden tan. The can be identified by the patterns on their body which is usually hourglass-shaped. They usually measure from 18 to 36 inches in length.

The Cottonmouth or Water Moccasin is long nearly 50 to 55 inches long. Their color could vary from dark tan to brown to black. The shapes in their body will often be vague or faded but usually look like crossbands. They are most frequently found on near or inside water.

Coral snakes are relatively thin and are about 24 inches long (or 2 feet). They are often confused with nonvenomous King Snakes, which have the same coloring or pattern. To tell apart a Coral Snake from a King Snake, look at the patterns. If the red bands are touching the yellow bands, then is it venomous Coral Snake. They are most commonly found underneath leaf piles, logs, rocks, and under the ground.

There are also a number of black snakes such as the Black Swampsnake, Black Rat Snake, the ring-necked snake, Black Pinesnake, Eastern Indigo Snake and the Southern Black Racer. These snakes vary slightly in appearance but are mainly colored black.