Outdoor Electrical Lighting Reduce Energy Consumption For Your City

A DIY Guide to Installing Outdoor Landscape Lighting

Outdoor landscape lighting is a great way to add instant curb appeal to your home. A few well-placed lights can transform your once dark backyard into an inviting outdoor entertainment area. It can accent yard and garden features, and provide safety lighting around paths, stairs and seating areas. Low voltage lighting, especially LED, is safe and relatively easy to install.

Gather required materials and tools

Materials:

#10 gauge outdoor wire

#12 gauge outdoor wire

1-1/2 in. x 12-in. PVC pipe

1-1/2-in. PVC cap with ½-in. female thread

½-in. copper pipe

For each ground light: 1-1/2-in. PVC coupler with ½-in. tee for wire opening

Lights

One box of weatherproof wire connectors

Transformer

Two ½-in. sweat-to thread copper adapters

Tools:

Extension ladder

Garden rake

Level

Posthole digger

Safety glasses

Voltage tester

Wire stripper/cutter

Wrench setvolt me

Volt meter

A garden spade

Aluminum tent stakes.

Design it first, then buy it:

A successful low voltage outdoor lighting plan requires selecting the right fixtures, then placing and wiring them correctly. Use waterproof pond lights for illuminating pools, fountains and other water features; offset path lights for lighting walkways; cone lights for highlighting both walkways and the surrounding plants; tree-mounted spotlights for simulating moonlight; and flood lights for illuminating trees, buildings and other large elements.

Walk into any home or garden center and you’ll most certainly see a wide array of outdoor low voltage lighting to consider. You can buy individual lights or prepackaged sets, plastic or metal varieties, and moon lights that shine down from trees or up from ponds. You can choose from halogen or LED lighting, LED bulbs are a little more expensive up front, but last much longer than halogen bulbs. LED lighting also does not generate heat like halogen, which reduces the fire risk in dry conditions.

As you design and shop for your lights, keep in mind:

Buy a larger transformer than you’ll initially need so you can add lights later as your landscape ideas expand.

Avoid over lighting. Outdoor lights look best when used as tasteful accents, not a mini football stadium. If you flood sitting areas with bright light it will be distracting and unappealing.

When lighting a path, decide whether you want to light only the path or both the path and the features around it. As a rule, the broader the field you want to light, the higher the light pole you’ll need.

Install lights where they won’t be easily damaged by plows or shovels. Remember, too, that the plants you illuminate will go through seasonal changes. Not all plants must be evergreens, some plants such as hydrangea, dogwoods and sumac are intriguing lit up even when leafless. 

Outdoor Lights Buying Guide

Deck & Patio Lights

Illuminate your backyard with patio and decking lights. These lights include decorative lanterns, solar powered post lights, deck step lights, and more.

String Lights

Perfect for any backyard party, string lights will give your backyard an elegant ambiance. They are available in many shapes including Edison bulbs, globes, and more.

Security & Flood Lights

Keep your home safe with security lights. Usually plugged into a timer or motion sensor, installing security or flood lights to the front of your home can help ward off any unwanted visitors.

Landscape Lighting

Brighten up your gorgeous landscape with lighting! Landscape lighting will add shape to your pathways and will allow your garden to shine.

Outdoor Flush Mount Lights

Flush mount lights are the perfect way to welcome your guests. Installed to the ceiling of your front porch, these lights are available in a variety of colours, materials, and styles.

Outdoor Wall Lights

Outdoor wall lighting is a standard option on front porches or on either side of the garage. You can get them in many styles including a retro-style lantern, or a modern sleek LED fixture.

What are UL Ratings?

The UL mark on a light fixture indicates its rating based on dry, damp, and wet locations.

UL Listed for Damp Locations: Marked as “suitable for damp locations,” these light fixtures can be installed in outdoor locations that are periodically subject to condensation or moisture, such as a covered porch or patio.

UL Listed for Wet Locations: Light fixtures marked with “suitable for wet locations” are safe to use in areas where the electrical components of the fixture may encounter water or other liquids. Ideal outdoor locations for these lights include pergolas, gazebos, exterior walls, uncovered porches and patios, decks, and walkways.

Outdoor lighting buying guide

The best lights for patios & backyards

There’s nothing like the warm, inviting ambiance of a well-lit outdoor area. Lighting is that special design component that truly adds a magical touch to your outdoor space. Best of all, these fixtures allow you to enjoy your outdoor living space longer, illuminating your backyard as the sun sets. To help you pick the right combination of outdoor lighting for your home, we’ve put together this quick outdoor lighting guide

Function

First and foremost, outdoor lighting should be a functional way to make your outdoor space safe and livable. For example, a winding path should include some path lights (or landscape lights) and an outdoor staircase should be well lit as well.

Highlights

Outdoor lighting can also be used to highlight standout features in your backyard or garden. For example, your favorite tree can be brought to life with low, upward facing lighting or a fountain can be illuminated for a show-stopping effect.

Atmosphere

Lastly, (but certainly not least), outdoor lighting is amazing for creating atmosphere. Whether you’re hosting an outdoor dinner party or simply enjoying long summer nights, outdoor light fixtures can add a soft glow, magical twinkle or bright light for the setting.

String Lights

String lights are the “jack-of-all-trades” of lights. These small (but mighty) beacons can be used practically anywhere. They can be strung around banisters and columns for a bold statement. They can create a star-inspired atmosphere when strung overhead. Or they can define a border by being hung around an entryway or door. Basically, you can’t go wrong with string lights. With various bulb sizes—smaller for a more twinkle-like effect and larger for more direct lighting—you can add that sparkle to any outdoor space.

Outdoor Lighting Tips, Tricks, and Considerations

When homeowners think about lighting a home, they may forget about the importance of outdoor lighting. The ability to see outdoors often focuses on visibility for the driveway and walkways, with security as a secondary concern. It is easy to overlook the fact that outdoor lighting factors heavily into a home’s curb appeal, especially at night or in seasons with short days. The trick lies in knowing the best way to light a home’s exterior property. There are plenty of options that homeowners can try, but there are also many ways to do it badly. Making mistakes in design or installation could make the home look worse instead of better.

As such, homeowners should investigate their options and the best ways to put them into action before buying products or attempting to install. With this information, they will know the most common lighting types available, best practices for installation based on the type of lighting, as well as common problems they should avoid. This will help them design outdoor lighting that provides ideal illumination in the most important areas, protects the home, showcases beautiful features and ensures a better space for spending time outside.

Types of Outdoor Lighting

Choosing outdoor lighting starts with an understanding of the various types. Many light fixtures may count as more than one type. In most cases, people should use a combination of lighting options—many homes in inman take advantage of multiple types of lighting, for instance. These lighting types offer a variety of ways to highlight:

large or small structures on the property

parts of the home’s exterior

walkways

driveways

landscaping

Spotlights

Spotlights offer plenty of light targeted in a specific direction. The amount of light these fixtures provide depends on the size and the strength of the bulb. Spotlights offer flexibility in that they can be pointed in virtually any direction. This allows homeowners to choose how much lighting they would prefer. For example, a large spotlight with a bright white light bulb and a 60-degree beam angle may be ideal to light a dark portion of the yard. By comparison, a spotlight with a softer color, fewer lumens, and a smaller beam angle of light may be preferable to call attention to smaller parts of the architecture or landscaping.

Flood Lights

Flood lighting is an exceptionally descriptive term. Flood lights are intended to flood the area with light. This is why they have a large beam angle, 60-120 degrees. They are most appropriate for areas like patios or driveways, which need a lot of lighting at night. Homeowners should be wary of trying to create a sense of daytime at night. If they use too much lighting, the area can take on an appearance that feels stark or cold. Most people do not use flood lights when they want a gentle ambiance, but there is a broad range of options between low lighting and something harsh.

Up/Downlights

Most lighting options require homeowners to position them either pointing upward or downward. Uplights and downlights can dramatically change the way structures and walkways look at night. Either option may help illuminate spaces between hedges and walls, making tighter spaces safer and easier to see. Most uplights and downlights could be called spotlights, given the shorter length of their beam angles.

How Much Does It Cost To Install Or Replace Outdoor Lighting?

Cost to Install Outdoor Lighting?

The national average cost of installing outdoor lighting is between $2,000 and $4,500. At the low end, a project that only includes incandescent path and deck lights costs from $2,000 to $3,000. A high-end installation that also includes designer, motion and solar-power lights costs between $5,000 and $6,000.

Outdoor lighting allows you to improve your home’s security while also adding style to its exterior. It’s particularly important when you have well-defined outdoor spaces like a patio or deck that serves as a natural gathering place for a large number of visitors. This guide shows you how to estimate the cost of your outdoor lighting project

Low-Voltage Landscape Lighting Installation Cost

The full retail price of low-voltage lighting is between $190 and $450, not including the transformer and wiring you would need for a new installation. They use a maximum of 15 watts of power and often less. These lights have die-cast aluminum fixtures and an anodized finish to prevent weathering.

Lamp Post Installation Cost

Professional contractors charge an average of $970 to install a lamp post and require about 13 hours of labor. Most of this cost is labor, so location is the primary cost factor. The cost also increases the further the lamppost is from the house, especially when the power lines are underground.

Cost to Install Outdoor Motion Sensor Lights

The national average cost of installing motion sensor lights is $370, assuming it’s a new installation. The low end is $220 if the installation site already has an electrical box. The upper end of the cost range is $550 for installations with smart LED lights and a smart-home controller.

Why Is It Important To Call For Mold Inspection Services

The Ultimate Guide to Mold Removal

We all desire to feel safe and comfortable within our homes, but that safety can abruptly be jeopardized by the presence of toxic mold. That’s why we have prepared this ultimate guide to mold removal for anyone looking to rid the infestation from their home or residence, wherever it crops up.

This is going to be important to reference as the rainy season comes along following this winter, so it’s best to be prudent and prepare when you can. Outside of simply ruining the look of your kitchen, bathroom, ceiling, or any of the other spaces mold tends to grow, the fungus also poses a danger to your home’s infrastructure. Mold damage on its own doesn’t cause the wood within your home to rot, but it does increase the wood’s ability to absorb moisture, which can make the wood more prone to other fungal growth which rots.

To make matters worse, mold also has the potential to detriment your health. Contrary to popular belief, it isn’t the mold itself that seriously hurts you. It’s the spores mold produces, called mycotoxins.

These are toxins that, when exposed to them, may cause certain health problems, especially to people who are sensitive to them. According to, this includes people who:

Have Allergies

Have asthma

Have chronic lung disease

Have compromised immune systems

Have weak immune systems (infants, children, elderly)

If you’re a healthy individual, you’ll probably be alright when exposed to most mold spores, but you should know that prolonged exposure to them can begin to impact your health, causing coughing, wheezing, and other respiratory-related issues.

Indoor Mold

Presence of Mold after a Severe Weather Event:

Excess moisture and standing water contribute to the growth of mold in homes and other buildings.

Steps can be taken to prevent mold growth if wet items are cleaned and dried within 24 to 48 hours.  Make sure you only enter your home once it is safe.

Signs of Mold:

Mold can be recognized by sight or smell or present no signs at all (hidden behind walls or under floors)

Sight (Mold growth often appears on walls and ceilings, looks like spots and can be many different colors)

Smell (You may smell a strong unpleasant musty, earthy odor)

People at Greatest Risk for Health Effects from Mold:

If you are allergic to mold, or you have asthma, allergies, or other breathing conditions, being around mold may make your condition worse.

If you have a chronic lung condition or a weak immune system (such as people with HIV infection, cancer patients taking chemotherapy, and people who have received an organ transplant), you could be more susceptible to mold infections in your lungs

Possible Health Effects of Mold Exposure:

People who are sensitive to mold may have a stuffy nose, irritated eyes, wheezing, or skin irritation.

People who are allergic to mold may have difficulty breathing or have shortness of breath.

People with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases may develop mold infections in their lungs.

If you or your family members have health problems after exposure to mold and you think that mold is affecting your health, please contact your doctor or other health care provider.

Cleaning Wet or Moldy Items after a Severe Weather Event:

When your home is safe to enter, dry out your home as quickly as possible to minimize mold problems and perhaps even prevent the growth of mold at all.

Water damage specialists or mold remediation companies have experience with cleanups of flooded homes and can provide you the peace of mind of knowing mold problems will be properly taken care of.  At a minimum, a maintenance or service professional that is experienced in mold clean up should check and clean your home heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system before you turn it on.  If the HVAC system was flooded with water, turning on the system may spread mold throughout the house.

Mold

Facts, Information and Resources

Molds are fungi that can be found in virtually every environment, indoors and outdoors, year round. No one knows how many species of fungi exist but estimates range from tens of thousands to perhaps three hundred thousand or more. Mold spores can survive harsh environmental conditions, such as dry conditions, that do not support normal mold growth.

Research has found that damp building conditions can lead to respiratory illnesses in occupants. Dampness in buildings can occur for a variety of reasons such as high indoor humidity, condensation, and roof leaks.

People who are sensitive to mold may experience stuffy nose, irritated eyes, wheezing, or skin irritation. People allergic to mold may have difficulty in breathing and shortness of breath. People with weakened immune systems and with chronic lung diseases, such as obstructive lung disease, may develop mold infections in their lungs. If you or your family members have health problems after exposure to mold, contact your doctor or other health care provider.

If you choose to use bleach to clean up mold:

Never mix bleach with ammonia or other household cleaners. Mixing bleach with ammonia or other cleaning products will produce dangerous, toxic and dangerous fumes.

Open windows and doors to provide fresh air.

Wear non-porous gloves and protective eye wear.

If the area to be cleaned is more than 10 square feet, consult the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guide titled Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. Although focused on schools and commercial buildings, this document also applies to other building types. You can get it by going to the EPA mold remediation web site found in the resources section below.

Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when using bleach or any other cleaning product.

Specific Recommendations:

Keep humidity levels as low as you can—no higher than 50%–all day long. An air conditioner or dehumidifier will help you keep the level low. Bear in mind that humidity levels change over the course of a day with changes in the moisture in the air and the air temperature, so you will need to check the humidity levels more than once a day.

Use an air conditioner or a dehumidifier during humid months.

Be sure the home has adequate ventilation, including exhaust fans.

Add mold inhibitors to paints before application.

Clean bathrooms with mold killing products.

Do not carpet bathrooms and basements.

Remove or replace previously soaked carpets and upholstery.

The Ultimate Guide to Mold Removal and Prevention

How to Battle Mold and Mildew at Home

As discussed, mildew and mold can pose severe health risks to you, your family, and your pets, as well. Mold has been linked to allergic reactions and respiratory problems, as well as central nervous system disorders and cognitive dysfunction. However, it gets a lot worse than this. Mold spores are even worse than the mold you can see in the corner of your shower. Mold spores are invisible to the naked eye, yet they can fill your indoor air with toxins, which makes them incredibly dangerous.

So, what can you do to prevent mold from growing in your home? Well, there are several different strategies and approaches to consider. The first thing you need to recognize is the fact that mold loves areas that are humid, warm, and lack good ventilation. This is why you will often see mold growing in areas such as the basement and the bathroom.

Therefore, keeping your home dry is a must. There are several other things you can do, as well. This includes the following:

Make sure you replace mildewy shower curtains

Clean out air conditioning drip pans

Keep fabrics and other clothes dry

Open windows and doors to promote air circulation, especially while cooking or taking a shower

Let the sunlight and fresh air help kill mold

Clean up any spills straight away

Address any plumbing issues and fix any leaks

Invest in a dehumidifier for damp areas around the home

Black mold is the type of mold you are probably familiar with. This is a kind of fungus that has a very dark green or black appearance. It often comes with a very distinct smell. It is a damp, mildew, or musty smell. There are some different ways that you can get rid of black mold. A lot of people use the likes of ammonia and bleach-based cleaning products to get free of mold. However, there are also natural methods, which are always recommended because it is still best to act with the environment in mind. For example, you can create cleaning solutions using tea tree oil, vinegar, baking soda, hydrogen peroxide, or grapefruit seed extract.

How to Get Rid of the Mold on the Ceiling of the Bathroom?

Do you have mold on the ceiling in your bathroom? If so, it is essential to not only make sure you clean it, but make sure you clean it effectively! You need to ensure you get rid of all potential traces. If the mold on the ceiling of your bathroom covers ten-square-feet or less, this is deemed a small area, which means you will be able to take care of this by yourself so long as the right procedures are followed. However, you are advised to seek professional services if the mold covers a bigger patch than this.

Mold Remediation

Mold Inspections

Usually, we recommend a visual inspection before you spend the money on mold testing. If visible mold is present, testing is probably a waste of money.

What is Involved in a Visual Inspection?

A visual inspection is what it sounds like. You, or your inspector, should take a close look around for any sign of damage or potential for water intrusion. See the list below for some common things to look for.

Visible mold growth

Visible water staining

Water in the crawl space

Improper grading around house/office

Irrigation systems too close to building

Improper attic insulation or ventilation

High humidity levels

Leaks under sinks or in other areas

Keep in mind that this is only a partial list. A good visual inspection should give you a good idea of what is going on in your home or office with regards to water & drainage, air flow in the building, and the general state of any appliance or equipment that is likely to be an issue.

What To Expect

On the day of your appointment, we will connect with you over your smart phone or mobile device and walk you through the process. You can show us areas of concern, or simply walk through your home with us and allow us to inspect the space for potential problems.

Of course, some locations and situations may still require us to come out to your home in person, but because we have experienced so many different situations over the years, it is likely that yours isn’t unique. For most of our clients, we can identify problems, provide advice or, if appropriate, produce an estimate for us to do work in your home.

Things To Know Before Selling Your Accountant Practice

Checklist For Choosing The Best CPA For Your Small Business

A small business bookkeeper plays some of the most significant roles in your company. The accuracy they have when performing their accounting tasks can either make or break your business. For this reason, it is crucial that you are very selective when choosing a bookkeeper for your business. To help you out, our knowledgeable team of small business CPAs have created a checklist of things to consider when hiring a bookkeeper. Read below to learn more.

1. Is this person an actual CPA? Or are they just a tax accountant?

Tax accountants focus their training on dealing with how much taxes a business should pay. Although this can be advantageous in some ways, your small business has more financial responsibilities than just taxes; this is where hiring a Certified Public Accountants comes into play. The National Association of State Boards of Accountancy requires small business accountants who wish to become CPAs to undergo at least 150 semester hours of education, at least 30 hours of advanced accounting education, and at least 24 hours of business-related education. This rigorous training makes our team of small business CPAs experts in almost all business financial processes like bookkeeping, tax planning and preparation, and financial advisory.

2. Have they been a CPA for at least a decade?

CPAs receive one of the most comprehensive trainings in all professions. Nevertheless, nothing can beat experience when it comes to handling business financials. Some principles, such as vendor communication, critical reports per industry, and more, are not something you can learn in accounting school. Hence, you need to choose a bookkeeper that has at least a decade of experience in your specific industry.

3. Does this firm have great online reviews?

Bookkeeping providers often brag about how effective their bookkeeping processes are. However, there is no better source of information on the quality of a bookkeeper’s services than their past clients. Online reviews are quick and easy ways to find out what makes a bookkeeper great and what areas they are lacking. Some of the best sources of online reviews are customer driven sites like Yelp and Google. Utilizing these reviews will allow you to see how clients view that CPA’s services. So for example; your goal is to grow your business so you need a CPA that specializes in small business financial advisory. As you are doing your research online you find a firm that says they have virtual CFO services, but they have reviews that say that they do a decent job at their financial advisory services but tax preparation is their expertise; this allows you to know that is not the CPA for you before you waste valuable time and resources.

4. Do they have experience doing extensive bookkeeping setup and cleanup projects?

Most businesses, once in a while, have to deal with terrible bookkeepers. These bookkeepers can muddle your books with unnecessary data, making it almost impossible to use. On the other hand a lot of small business owners try the DIY approach with their bookkeeping tasks. This often leads to two results; they get overwhelmed with managing these tasks so they stop doing them all together or they are simply doing these tasks incorrectly. This is a huge issue, because at least 65% of our new clients need us to clean up their books in order to stabilize their business. This means that 65% of people were at risk of making financial decisions based off of incorrect financial metrics. This can have a huge impact on your ability to scale your business. So, when you decide to hire a small business bookkeeper for the first time or if you are replacing the current bookkeeper you have, make sure that they can reorganize, and clean your books effectively. Otherwise, you’d be better off settling with your previous accountant.

Why do small businesses have problems finding accountants?

Typically, many small business struggle to find an accounting firm because they

  • Can’t identify exactly which financial services they need,
  • They don’t know where to find the best accountant for their needs, or
  • They don’t have the proper budget for an accountant.

However, these issues can be combated with the right plan.

First, identify your specific financial needs and what your financial gaps are. Do you need bookkeeping or tax planning services? Do you need someone with definitive knowledge or experience in a given industry?

Next, decide which type of accounting service you’re in the market for. This can mean the decision between a local or remote accounting firm, a bookkeeper or a CPA, or a QuickBooks certified expert.

Finally, since you can expect to pay an accounting agency $500 to $3,000 every month, decide which type of accounting services fit into your business’s budget.

Choosing your accounting date

At Avenue Business Services we can advise businesses in the Whiteley area about choosing the best and most tax-efficient accounting date. Here are some of the issues to consider.

Q. Can I select any date for my accounting year end?

A. Yes

The choice of a year end accounting date is for the business owner to decide.

Under the current year basis, the taxable profit for a particular tax year is determined by the accounts that end in that year.

Thus, for 2020–21 tax, accounting dates will vary between 6 April 2019 and 5 April 2020. So what is the best date to choose?

Sometimes, compelling commercial reasons relating to the nature of the trade will dictate the most appropriate accounting date. Otherwise (as in so many tax matters), there is no easy answer – it all depends on the particular circumstances. There are several basic considerations:

Overlap relief

The system is designed so that, over the life of a business, tax is paid on no more and no less than the cumulative profits of the business. However, unless your accounting date falls between 31 March and 5 April (inclusive), there will be some element of double counting, or overlap, in the first full tax year on the current year basis.

Overlap relief will be held in reserve for use when the business ceases (or on an interim change of accounting date). One concern is that, because of inflation, overlap relief will be worth less in future years than it is at present.

Bunching of terminal profits

The converse of the overlap situation is the ‘bunching’ effect of profits when a business ceases. The assessment for the final tax year will be based on the profits right back to the accounting date in the previous tax year. The earlier in the tax year the accounting date falls, the longer will be the period of account relating to the final assessment.

Thus a cessation date of, say, 31 December means that the final tax assessment will be based on a period varying in length between 9 months (5 April accounting date) and 21 months (6 April accounting date). This effect may be lessened to some extent by overlap relief, but the overall distortion is illustrated in the example set out below.

Partnerships

Partners are each deemed for tax to have an individual business so the points already mentioned for new businesses and those ceasing apply equally to partners joining or leaving a continuing partnership.

Pattern of profits

If profits do not vary significantly from one year to the next, the accounting date will not affect the assessable profit for each tax year.

Where profits show a trend, the rule of thumb is that (all other things being equal) it is beneficial to have an accounting date early in the tax year if profits are rising, and late in the year if profits are falling.

External factors

Of course, all other things are not equal, and in evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of particular accounting dates there are a number factors to be considered, including:

  • interest rate movements
  • the effects of inflation
  • changes in rates of tax
  • changes to the tax system

No one can say how these will change over time, and so, not surprisingly, businesses tend to be swayed by the short-term advantages, which have at least some degree of predictability.

Timing of payments on account

It is as well to remember that the date for the first payment on account falls just over two months before an accounting date of 5 April, but nearly ten months after an accounting date of 6 April. Thus, with an accounting date later in the tax year you could pay too much tax on account where profits are falling, and this is a further factor affecting cashflow.

What Do Small Business Accountants Do Anyway?

The increasing role of small business in the American business landscape and more powerful and accessible information technology has changed the role and importance of the small business accountant.

Why do you need an accountant? Some small businesses make due with a bookkeeper – someone to perform the tedious task of recording financial information and cranking that data into the necessary formats, like P&L statements and tax forms.

But a good small business accountant does much more than just record transactions and passively generate documents-they actively analyze, interpret and convert that data into actionable business intelligence.

Based on where you want to go with your business, they should be able to tell you how to get there. If your accountant is just showing you the financial tracks of where you have been, you’ve made a bad choice and you’re missing out on a great opportunity to receive good business advice.

Becoming A Physical Therapist In Pediatrics

Why do we need pediatricians?

After your child is born, one of the first doctors you will see for his or her care is a pediatrician. But knowing when to see your pediatrician, and for how long, can sometimes be confusing for young parents.

Pediatrician vs. Family Practitioner

Unlike a family practitioner who typically treats adults over the age of 18, pediatricians generally focus on the physical, mental and emotional well-being of infants, children, teens and young adults until the age of 18 to 21, depending on the doctor. These pediatric doctors work with you to offer advice, prevent illness, and help you foster a healthy lifestyle for your child. They also treat acute (critical) or chronic (long-term) conditions, such as asthma or diabetes.

If your child shows symptoms of a specific condition, your pediatrician may refer him or her to a pediatric specialist for further evaluation. These doctors have specialized training and unique expertise in their area of practice, such as orthopedics (birth defects, developmental disorders) or cardiology (heart disease).

As your child grows and develops, you will likely visit your pediatrician for a number of reasons. Be sure to provide the doctor as much detailed information as possible about your child and any symptoms you’ve noticed. Take time to ask all of your questions, no matter how trivial they may seem. You may want to bring a friend or family member to help you listen and jot down important information. The more you know (and remember) the better you can care for your child at home.

Development

One reason it’s important to take your child to a pediatrician is to monitor his developmental progress or milestones. At each visit, your child will be weighed and measured to evaluate his growth in weight, height, and body mass index (BMI). The doctor will show you how this compares to other kids of the same age and gender so you can gauge how your child is progressing. The pediatrician will also check for any developmental delays. He or she may ask about your child’s behavior at home and observe things like smiling, rolling over, sitting up, language, walking and how she uses her hands and arms. The doctor will also test your child’s reflexes and muscle tone.

Ear Infection

Young children have on average 6 to 8 colds a year, and often with them come ear infections. Common signs and symptoms include ear pain, tugging or pulling at the ear, trouble sleeping, crying or acting more irritable than usual, and fever of 100 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. Symptoms generally improve in the first couple of days and often clear up on their own within one to two weeks. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a wait-and-see approach as one option for kids:

6 to 23 months with mild inner ear pain in one ear for less than 48 hours and a temperature less than 102.2 degrees Fahrenheit

24 months and older with mild inner ear pain in one or both ears for less than 48 hours and a temperature less than 102.2 degrees Fahrenheit

If your child is less than 6 months and showing symptoms of an ear infection, contact your doctor right away. Also contact your doctor if your child is sleepless or irritable after a cold or other upper respiratory infection, or has symptoms that last for more than a day, severe ear pain, or a discharge of fluid, pus or blood. Your doctor may prescribe treatment, such as a warm compress, pain medication or an antibiotic.

Common Reasons to Visit a Pediatrician

Many parents choose to take their child to see a pediatrician versus a primary care doctor, as pediatricians focus specifically on the health needs of children. Children have their own special and unique needs and pediatricians are specifically trained in understanding these needs, which allows them to offer relevant health care services.

While there are many reasons why people will need to take their child to a pediatric office for care, there are some reasons that are much more common than others.

Common reasons to visit a pediatrician

The following is a list of some of the more common reasons why visiting a pediatrician is necessary.

1. New baby well check

A baby’s first health examination should take place within the first week of their life. The entire appointment tends to take about half an hour as the pediatrician will do a full evaluation of the newborn in order to ensure that all is well.

2. Annual physical exams

Routine physical exams, also known as annual well-child exams, are necessary for all children in order to make sure that they are growing as they should. When visiting a pediatrician for this reason, a child will be physically measured in order to ensure that they are growing up healthy and strong.

3. Immunizations

The American Academy of Pediatrics has created a schedule for child immunizations, which needs to be closely adhered to for a child’s good overall health. Immunizations and vaccines start at birth and end at around the age of 18.

4. Ear infections

Research shows that children are significantly more likely to develop ear infections than adults, thereby making it a common reason to visit a pediatrician.

5. Common colds

Many parents take their children to see a pediatrician for a common cold, which is recommended because a common cold comes with many side effects and has the potential to turn into a more serious condition.

6. Sore throats

A sore throat can be a sign of strep throat, which is a bacterial infection and therefore requires antibiotics in order to treat.

7. Behavioral issues

Behavioral issues in children can be first addressed by a pediatrician as this allows parents to understand whether or not their children’s behavioral issues are normal.

8. Nutritional advice

Children tend to be picky eaters, which can make it difficult for parents to make sure that they are getting their recommended daily amount of nutrients. A pediatrician can offer parents the nutritional advice they need so their children can grow up strong and healthy.

What to Expect at the First Pediatrician Appointment

Having a baby is exciting. You have a new little life to take care of. This also means finding a great pediatrician for you and your little one and going to all the scheduled appointments. Infants and small children will need a series of vaccinations and check-ups before their second birthday. A pediatrician will help them gain immunity to diseases, find any issues to work on and make sure that their development is going perfectly. Still, being a new parent can be overwhelming. Knowing what to expect during that first pediatric visit may put your mind at ease.

What to expect

It is natural to feel somewhat nervous about the first appointment. This is a new experience for all first-time parents. The office may ask for some paperwork from the hospital or insurance company during this first visit. The first visit should empower the parents and inform them, as well. This is a great opportunity for parents to ask questions and have an open conversation with their child’s pediatrician.

How to prepare the child

While too small to understand what is happening, it is important that the baby is dressed in simple clothing. Loose fitting, easy to remove clothing helps the process go smoother. The pediatrician will want the clothing removed so that they can do a full exam. Cuddling, soothing voices, warmth, a change of clothes, diapers and milk are all that is needed during this exam.

The visit

The nurse will be the first person seen. They will weigh and measure the baby and then chart the measurements. This is the growth chart that will show at what percentile the baby is measuring. It is normal for babies to lose some of their body weight after delivery but by the second week, they should have gained it all, if not more, back.

The pediatrician is next to come into the room. They will do an exam on the baby and look them over from head to toe. Additionally, they will educate the parents and answer any questions that they may have. This is a good time for new parents to ask as many questions as they can think of. The doctor will want to know how many dirty diapers the baby is having, as well as their feeding schedule. This will give them more information on how well the baby is doing.

Questions to ask the pediatrician

It is important to ask questions to find out more about the pediatrician and what their experience is. Parents can ask these questions in advance so that when the child comes in for an appointment, everyone has an idea of what to expect. Here are some of the more important questions to ask when choosing a pediatrician for autism:

  • How long have they been in practice?
  • Have they dealt with autism before?
  • What has their experience been treating autistic children?
  • Do they have any specialties?
  • Can they recommend anything specifically for the child?
  • What do they enjoy about working with autistic children?
  • Do they have a quiet area or somewhere calm for an autistic child to wait before being seen?

Switching To Day Time Move In Cleaning

End of tenancy cleaning tips

This guide will help you understand the basic end of tenancy cleaning tips and know-how tenants should take under full consideration. More than 50% of all deposit disputes happen due to inadequate cleanup or include a cleaning related issue after the final move out inspection. Doing your end of tenancy cleaning up to your tenancy agreement requirements is critical to get your deposit 100% back.

Short summary:

Basically, when you move out your housing has to be as clean as when you moved in. Limescale round taps, switches and sockets along with mould on grout, fingerprints on windows and glass doors, are not considered ‘fair wear and tear’. This means you are bound to take care of everything.

You want to clean everything yourself?

Bear in mind how long it takes to do the job right, not to mention all the gear you’ll need. Removing limescale, grease, mould, and dirt might take a single person tens of hours to complete and proper carpet cleaning requires vacuuming and professional hot water extraction cleaning. Everything has to be finished before your landlord and inventory clerk carry a final move-out inspection. Don’t attempt to do end of tenancy cleaning before you move belongings out. It would be far easier, regardless of who does the cleaning.

The Mandatory End of Tenancy Cleaning Tips for Tenants

Tenants often want to carry end of tenancy cleaning DIY.  There is nothing wrong with that but there are a thing or two you should know. Here is a set of tenant tips,

Your full deposit refund depends on what is the housing condition AFTER you leave.

As a tenant, you are eligible to carry out your own cleaning, unless your tenancy agreement says otherwise. There are cases where professional curtain and carpet cleaning are required by landlords, as well as professional carpet cleaning. Unless explicitly written and undersigned – the choice is up to you. The cost of rug cleaning as a standalone service makes booking A to Z tenancy cleaning a reasonable choice.

DIY enthusiasts should be aware of time and effort required to properly clean a property. Professional move out cleaning teams could consist of up to 6 technicians and take up to 4, 5 hours of work. Supplemental detergents and gear are required – steamers (you could rent), high-end vacuum cleaners, squeegees, detergents and etc.

The landlord or estate agent has the right to demand the same level of hygiene as stated within the primary property inventory report, prior to you moving in.

Choosing between a professional after tenancy cleaning and a DIY home clean is up to the tenant, as long as the initial property condition is met (with some fair wear and tear applied).

In case the renter handles domestic duties and chores by him/herself, the check-in inventory report should be taken into 100% CONSIDERATION.

Your landlord can not imply overly charges in case the abode is not fully cleaned BEFORE the renter has moved out.

If agency managed, it is the agency’s call on whether a landlord claim is right or wrong.

If your deposit is not paid back in time, you can challenge your landlord to court and opt for compensations.

In case of significant and unfair deposit deductions, the renter has to make sure whether the rental agreement refers such in any way. If too much and the landlord rejects reconsideration – the tenant has right to take the issue to COURT.

Home Cleaning Cost Guide

Unsure how much to pay for a house cleaning service? In this Home Cleaning Cost Guide, we look at how much it is to engage a home cleaning service. Most cleaning sessions are paid by the hour. As long as you know how many hours are required for your house, you can roughly know the price of that cleaning session.

Regular cleaning service

Where are you hiring cleaners from? The prices can range based on several factors, including how you source for cleaners (such as the difference in pricing between companies and freelancers).

Freelance helpers usually charge around $15 to $19 per hour. For a typical four-bedroom HDB flat, it will require 3-4 hours of cleaning. When multiplied by four sessions per month, it will be around $180 to $300 per four weeks, for weekly cleaning rituals. It is more or less $65 per session, which is pretty affordable.

Cleaners from an agency

Sometimes, finding a freelancer that is within your area and can work according to your schedule is tough. Hence, some opt for hiring a cleaner through an agency. The agency will search for a suitable cleaner for you while accepting a one-time upfront fee from you for their efforts.

The cleaning company coordinates the cleaning jobs and ensures that:

There are cleaners available to do your job when you require

Cleaners are well-trained and responsible to perform your cleaning tasks

You and your property are well insured and protected

The cleaning company will charge by a per hour fee of around $20 to $35 per hour. For a four-room HDB flat, it will take about 3-4 hours of regular weekly cleaning, which amounts to about average house cleaning cost of S$320 to S$560 per month for four sessions monthly.

Moving In / Out

Moving In

Before loading your car, please visit What to Bring for details on what to pack – and what not to! Then visit one of our move-in pages:

Fall Move-In

Spring Move-In

Summer Move-In.

Pay attention to the YEARS on these pages. If you are looking for information for a year not indicated,

halls and apartments will have the following mitigating strategies in place:

Students moving into on-campus housing will be required to be tested for COVID-19.

Bedroom occupancy in halls and apartments will be one or two people. Triple and quad residence-hall rooms will be used to house two people.

Community bathrooms will be deep cleaned daily with a secondary sanitization.

Common areas will be cleaned and sanitized daily, focusing on high-touch surfaces.

Cleaning and sanitizing supplies will be available for student use in all community bathrooms, suites, apartments and available at hall/apartment desks.

Staff will be required to perform a daily symptom check before working.

Staff will be expected to wear cloth face coverings in common areas.

Students will be expected to wear cloth face coverings in common spaces.

All staff and students will maintain recommended physical distance as much as possible in common areas.

Plexi shields will be used at public service desks where virtual service is not possible.

House/floor/community meetings and events will be held virtually or in spaces where physical distancing is possible.

Quarantine housing spaces will be available for students who are symptomatic or have had a known exposure to COVID-19.

Isolation housing spaces will be available for students who test positive for COVID-19.

You are REQUIRED to wear a face covering:

In all common areas (hallways, entryways, dens, kitchenettes, laundry rooms, etc), even if no one else is present.

In bathrooms – when you’re not in the shower or brushing your teeth – even if no one is present.

Outside if you aren’t maintaining a six-foot distance from your friends

Guest Policies

Residents are permitted to host one guest per resident at any one time in their room/apartment. Guests are only allowed with the permission of other roommates. See full policy here.

Overnight guests are not permitted unless the another roommate is not spending the night. All overnight guests must be given permission by the other roommates in advance. See full policy here.

Cleaning Tips for New Buyers Moving During Coronavirus

Most of the country is staying home right now, but thanks to predetermined closing dates, some new homebuyers are changing homes. Moving to a new home is always accompanied with a certain amount of stress; moving to a new home during a pandemic amplifies that stress. In order to help manage some of the COVID-19 moving anxiety, we compiled the following cleaning tips to help you move safely during the coronavirus.

Get familiar with virology

Virology is the study of how a virus behaves. In the case of COVID-19, researchers are still working to observe and document the properties of the virus. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states that the virus typically spreads through human-to-human contact and through respiratory droplets in the air.

What does that mean for your move? Most importantly, it means that you should practice as much social distancing as possible. If you must meet in person (for closing or to pick up supplies), be sure to stay at least six feet away from other people. It also means that you’ll need to be extra careful with cleaning practices in order to limit your contact with potentially infected surfaces.

Consider delaying move-in

Knowing a little bit more about viruses may influence when you want to move in. In some cases, timelines are tight and cannot be adjusted. However, if possible, you may want to delay moving into your new home for three days or longer — enough time to significantly reduce your exposure to viruses.

Stock up on supplies

Be sure you have enough cleaning supplies before moving, and keep those supplies handy. Don’t pack them away! If possible, purchase hand sanitizer along with antibacterial wipes, sprays, cleaning soaps, and hand soaps. Anticipate what you will need for whole-home cleaning — but don’t buy too much. Remember there are others in need, too

Quick Guide: Cleaning Up Before You Move

Are you getting ready to move? It’s a great idea to also think about clean up after you get everything packed up know that just the act of moving can be very overwhelming, and it can be hard to think of exactly what you need to do. We want to make this stressful time as easy as possible, so here’s a quick a list of things that you may have forgotten to clean.

Spackle Over Any Holes in the Wall

It can be easy to forget about these, especially when you’re trying to move out in a hurry. Try to remember to take these out though for the new person moving in. If you live in an apartment, they may also charge you an additional fee! This can be fast and easy, so don’t spend more money then you have to. Fill them in!

Dust, Dust, Dust

Ceiling fans, baseboards, windows, base boards, light fixtures, window sills,  walls, and even ceilings can accumulate a lot of dander and dust. Make sure that you dust off these areas and wipe them down with a light cleaner. This will freshen up any home and make them fresh and clean.

Start with Fresh Linens

The last thing you wanna do after you move in all your stuff in your new place is to clean more. Go ahead and take out ALL your linens and run them through the washer. You will thank yourself later.

Use Air Spray!

Air spray can improve and freshen your home in one sweep. Go into all the rooms and spray a heavy dosage of air spray in each one. This will leave a nice scent for the new residents!

Squirrels In The Attic

HOW TO GET RID OF SQUIRRELS

If you have unwanted squirrels inside or outside the home, in some cases, the only way to get rid of them is to trap and remove them. In other cases, they can possibly simply be excluded from a house using one-way exit doors. Trapping is an art, as is exclusion and most amateur attempts go awry for a variety of reasons. An intimate knowledge of squirrel behavior, and of various squirrel exclusion devices and trap types is necessary to ensure success.

STEP 1: Determine if trapping is necessary, or if there is a preventative alternative.

STEP 2: Select the right trap for the situation, of at least a dozen types of squirrel traps.

STEP 3: Set the traps in the correct areas, in shade, camouflaged, mounted in trees, etc.

STEP 4: Use correct bait, but to be honest, trap setup & location are more important.

STEP 5: Monitor the trap daily, remove trapped squirrels and transport them.

STEP 6: If the squirrels were inside a house, do the same as above, but consider a one-way exclusion door, mounted on the squirrel holes. Once all the squirrels are out, seal the entry hole shut with steel repairs.

How to Get Rid of Squirrels in the House

Squirrels are a destructive bunch, and like most other rodents, their destructive nature goes hand-in-hand with their need to chew. If you are having an issue with squirrels in your house, most likely the attic, chances are you’ve been sitting in your living room, wondering what is making that annoying noise over your head. It’s louder than a mouse, and every once in a while it sounds like there is a small herd of somethings running around your attic. Depending on the type of squirrel living upstairs, you can have anywhere from one to twelve squirrels sharing your home

These animals are most effectively removed by live trapping with one-way exclusion doors, repeater traps, or cage traps. Live trapping is most effective because you can deal with a large number of squirrels all at once. No matter how you go about trapping the squirrels, it is very important that you determine if any babies have been left behind in the attic. Hidden babies will often die and create a foul odor that will waft through the premises. After all the squirrels are gone, clean up the space and immediately seal off any entry points. If you do not do a thorough sealing job, more squirrels will move in and create trouble.

How to Get Rid of Squirrels in the Chimney

Squirrels like chimneys because they are warm, and in the off-season, chimneys provide reliable shelter and easy access to the outside. Squirrels don’t always live inside of chimneys; they often live in the spaces next to them within the roof or attic. The best method of control for squirrels inclined to live in this part of a home is to trap them during warm weather using a one-way door. Once the squirrels are out of the chimney, a chimney cap can be secured to the top to prevent any new rodents from moving in. For those squirrels living next to the chimney, live traps can be effective if placed in strategic areas of the attic or crawl space.

How To Get Rid of Squirrels

are experts in squirrel control methods, having performed thousands of squirrel removal jobs nationwide. The most common conflict with squirrels occurs when they enter the attic of a house, though squirrels cause nuisance issues in other ways as well.

Here are the best ways to get rid of squirrels:

Cage Trapping: For certain types of squirrel problems, trapping and removal is a good option. Don’t set traps in an attic!

One-Way Doors: If the young are 6 weeks old, mount a one-way door or funnel over the entry/exit hole to get them all out.

Exclusion: If squirrels are getting in your attic or walls, you must find the entry areas and seal them shut.

Prevention: Keep away food sources like bird seed. Trim tree branches away from your roof. Put hot sauce on things they chew.

Repellents: Do mothballs, ammonia, fox urine, or sound/light repel squirrels? No – these tactics do not alter squirrel behavior.

In the Attic: Squirrels in the attic must be dealt with in a very careful, specific way, because there will be baby squirrels.

Squirrel Info: Squirrels are members of the rodent family. The most frequently dealt with nuisance squirrel is the Eastern Gray Squirrel. They measure around 16-18 inches from nose to tail and weigh approximately one pound. Gray squirrels are active year-round and arboreal, meaning that they live primarily in trees. They feed on a great variety of foods, such as nuts, seeds, fungi, fruits, and of course the seed in your birdfeeder.

They store nuts and acorns in holes in the ground. Gray squirrels breed throughout the year, but there are two distinct peaks, in the winter and summer. After about six weeks, two to four young are born, and raised in a nest for about three months. They prefer cavities in trees (or homes), and when cavities aren’t available, they will build a nest out of leaves and twigs high in a tree.

Nuisance concerns: Squirrels have easily adapted to humans. They frequently use buildings as nesting areas. Squirrels love to break into a house and stay in an attic or soffit. They often find a small opening and will chew a wider hole to gain access to the building. They bring nesting material into the home, and make quite a bit of noise scurrying around and caching nuts. They often fall down the chimney flue and make a lot of noise or enter the fireplace

How To Get Squirrels Out of Your Attic

The first sign of squirrels in the attic is the scurrying or scratching usually in the ceiling or eaves, during the early morning or evening hours. Squirrels love to live in attics. The female squirrels view your attic as a big, dry, safe tree nest! The females give birth twice a year – in late winter and late summer, and then the young grow quickly and start running around in your attic. Peak times for activity are February/March and September/October, although they sometimes spend all year in an attic, and we get calls about them 12 months out of the year.

They are very capable animals, and they can climb almost any surface and jump very far, and thus they have no problem finding the entry points into your attic – usually poorly screened roof vents, or places where the soffit meets the roof, or eave vents, or wooden fascia boards that they can chew through. Your home might have several entry areas. The general process to get rid of squirrels in the attic is as such: First, inspect the house to find out how the squirrels are getting inside

Is there a nest of baby squirrels? Yes. Pretty much every time squirrels are in the attic, it’s a single female who has a litter of young. She finds her way into the attic twice per year, when she has the litter of young. This is usually around February and August. The young are born, and they grow quickly. They reach adult size in only six weeks, at which time they start to run around the attic. This is often when homeowners first notice a problem, because they’ve suddenly gone from one squirrel to five! You must be aware of the young.

What kind of damage is caused by squirrels in the attic? The primary problems are trampling down insulation and creating tunnels, leaving feces and urine in the attic, bringing plant matter and nesting material into the attic, chewing on wood beams in the attic, and chewing on electrical wires in the attic. Some of these activities are merely unsanitary, but some can cause a risk of fire hazard. Also, be aware that if you have squirrels living in your attic, they might die in your attic, and cause a big odor problem.

How do I trap squirrels? Trapping is helpful in some cases of squirrels in the attic, but actually not the majority. In most cases, your best option is to perform a squirrel exclusion – this means that you install a one-way door on the squirrels’ primary entry/exit hole. To do this, you must first seal up all secondary points of entry, and make sure there are no vulnerable areas to chew back in. But if an exclusion isn’t possible, or the risk of chewing on wood is too high, then a repeater trap, which can catch up to eight squirrels at once, and mounted directly on that main entry/exit hole, is best. If that isn’t possible for some reason, only then are baited cage traps the best option

How to Get Rid of Squirrels

Tips to Get Rid of Squirrels:

Inspect your house, and find any squirrel entry holes with chew marks

Go into the attic and look for squirrel feces, trails, and nesting debris

Install a one-way exclusion door or repeater trap on the main squirrel hole

After all the squirrels are excluded or trapped, seal the entry hole with steel

Clean the attic afterward, at your discretion – may not be necessary

Prevent future squirrels by squirrel-proofing all roof vents, soffit vents, and eave gaps

You can trim trees, but they are amazing climbers, and will get on your roof anyway

Get squirrel-proof birdfeeders if that’s what’s attracting them

Install chicken wire or other fencing around plants or gardens they chew on

Remember, there are no effective repellents, though hot sauce discourages chewing

Homeowners that have experienced a squirrel infestation know that these pests are particularly difficult to control because of their persistence and their speedy, acrobatic movements. Squirrels can cause considerable damage to gardens and yards, roof and attics

They are excellent chewers and are notorious for chewing their way into buildings in a dogged manner, as they love being inside buildings. Once they gain entrance, they go on to create a mess with their constant gnawing on structures and fittings.

Squirrels constitute a huge nuisance for many homeowners, they can be heard chattering or squealing in the attic, or scurrying around and upturning things. They are not so hard to spot as they are active during the daytime, and some of their antics are:

They take down birdfeeders and steal birdseed

They damage wood siding, soffets, roof boards, and exhaust fans

They eat some garden plants and destroy others by scurrying around

They dig up bulbs and vegetables in the garden

Indoors, they make a mess in attics with their urine and droppings

They chew on electric cables and insulation, creating a fire hazard

They leave dirty tracks on your walls and surfaces

They chew on wooden furniture

If you want to get rid of squirrels in the attic, please read my how to get rid of squirrels in the attic guide. It is often a very difficult process, because there is a mother with baby squirrels. You might want to learn about squirrels in attic removal cost because of the variability of the job

HOW TO KEEP SQUIRRELS AWAY FROM THE GARDEN

WHY WORRY ABOUT SQUIRRELS IN THE GARDEN?

With a fondness for fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers, the common squirrel has long spelled trouble for home gardeners. these wily critters yank geraniums from window boxes, pluck tomatoes from their vines, and strip apple trees like professional pickers. Though their foraging forays can happen at any time of year, a squirrel’s raid in late summer and early autumn can drive a gardener nuts.

Squirrels are especially active in autumn as they stock up for winter. They do not hibernate (although they may “lie low” during cold spells), so their underground pantries are vitally important winter warehouses. They have a major instinct for hoarding food, which helps them to survive. Gray squirrels stash food by burying it in a scattered fashion around their territory.

Although North America is home to several species of squirrels, it is the suburb-savvy gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis, that gives gardeners (and people who feed birds) the most grief. How did the clever critters find those bulbs, anyway? Why do they ransack some borders and leave others alone? What do squirrels eat?

The average squirrel gathers acorns, pinecones, nuts, bark, fruit, berries, fungi, and insects, but is not above stealing bird eggs and bulbs. Sometimes they will even ruin your flowers just for the fun of it! Keep an eye out for these pesky visitors and try some of our tips below.

HOW TO IDENTIFY SQUIRREL DAMAGE IN YOUR GARDEN

Weighing an average of 16 to 24 ounces, the type of squirrel that is probably causing damage in your garden is the common gray squirrel. Its color varies from gray, tan, or light brown to dark brown and black. Its belly is light, from white to gray. Its body is 8 to 11 inches in length, and its tail measures 8 to 10 inches.

Learn About Safety Awareness For Dump Truck Tires

Why Tire Blowouts are So Dangerous

Tire blowouts are dangerous on any vehicle, but that danger escalates significantly on a tractor-trailer. First, the tire blowout can cause the truck driver to lose control of the rig, putting nearby motorists at risk of an accident.

Also, rubber and metal explode from a blown-out tire at great force and speed, which can penetrate the window of a passing car or cause the motorist to lose control of the vehicle. A truck’s tire is larger and filled with more air than a car’s, making the explosion that much more violent and hazardous.

Tire scraps cause continued hazards on the road. Motorists are forced to swerve around the debris, and may spin out of control if they accidently run over it. For this reason, the trucking corporation has a responsibility to immediately clean up the debris from an exploded tire and may be held liable for failing to do so.

Poor Maintenance of Truck Tires

A tire blowout should never happen if the trucking company and driver maintain the truck. Mistakes that lead to a tire blowout include:

  • Over-pressurization of the tire: This might happen because of an incorrect gauge reading
  • Overheating: Trucks that travel to hot environments are at risk of tire blowout, especially if the tire was filled to capacity in a cold environment
  • Zipper failure: The tire can unravel if damage results in a crack or weakness
  • Demounting: An improperly mounted tire might suddenly, violently fly off
  • Threadbare tire: Tires should always be replaced before they become worn out and dangerous

Accidents from Tire Delamination

Tire delamination happens when the tread or rubber separates from the tire causing the tire to blow out or deflate suddenly. This can cause injury to motorists in many ways:

  • The truck driver could lose control of the truck and cause an accident
  • During an accident, debris from the delaminated tire can strike a motorist
  • The debris from the delaminated tire can end up in the roadway and create an obstruction that causes an accident.

After an 18-wheeler has experienced a tire blowout or delamination, both the truck driver and motorists on the road are in danger. Because the tire delamination typically causes a sudden change in stability to the vehicle, it is very difficult for the truck driver to maintain control of the 18-wheeler after this has happened. Often the motorist cannot get out of the path of the 18-wheeler and the 18-wheeler driver is unable to steer the truck to avoid hitting the motorist.

Motorist can also be injured if the 18-wheeler’s tire delaminates and rubber from the defective tire flies off and strikes a car. Often, when a tire blows out or delaminates, pieces of the tire become airborne when the driver frantically tries to maneuver the 18-wheeler to a safe location or out of the flow of traffic. These airborne pieces of rubber can be large, sharp, and hot from the friction of the road. Tragically, they can injure a motorist or pedestrian if they are struck by the flying rubber.

How to Fix a Flat Tire

Having a flat tire is one of the major inconveniences of driving. When a good spare is unavailable, you either have to call a tow truck or fix the tire yourself. Luckily, the process of fixing it yourself is relatively straightforward and requires only a few tools.

Finding the Leak

  • Inflate the tire.

In order to find a leak the tire must be properly pressurized. You should inflate your tire with air until it reaches the appropriate pressure (measured in psi) specified in your vehicle’s service manual.

  • Visually inspect the tire.

Before moving on to more time consuming techniques, you should take a moment to look at your tire. If you notice any holes, cuts, or objects protruding from tire then you have found your leak.

  • Listen for a hissing sound. Even if you aren’t able to see the problem right away you might be able to hear it. A hissing sound is a clear sign that air is leaking from your tire, and can help you locate the leak.
  • Feel around the tire for air.

 If you run your hands over the tire carefully you may feel the leak even if you can’t hear or see it.

  • Mix soap and water.

If you followed the steps above and you were not able to easily find the leak don’t fear. Spraying the tire with a little soapy water or window cleaner may help. If you see bubbling at any place on the surface of the tire then you have found your leak.

  • Cover the tire with the soap and water solution.

You can use a spray bottle to spray the tire, or if a spray bottle isn’t available you can just pour the mixture over the tire.

  • Watch for bubbles.

As air escapes the tire and encounters the soapy water mixture it will form soap bubbles. If you notice the soapy water bubbling at any particular place on the tire, you have found your leak.

Fixing the Leak with Tire Puncture Sealants

  • Read the directions on the can of sealant you have brought.

Various manufacturers have slightly different steps and required amounts you should put in. However, there are some steps that are generally the same.

  • Pull out any object that has punctured your tire.

This may or may not be necessary depending on why your tire is flat.

  • Turn the wheel until the valve is at the top of the wheel.

Unscrew your valve cap. You will put the sealant in the same way that you would inflate your tire with air.

  • Attach the nozzle of the product to the valve stem.

Once you have it on securely, press a button to release the contents.

  • Drive your car.

You need to drive your car to rotate the tire. This allows the sealant to be distributed evenly inside the tire and prevents it from forming a heavy lump inside the tire.

  • Replace your tire.

Tire sealants are great to bail you out in a major crisis. Unfortunately they are only good for 3 days or 100 miles, whichever comes first. You should replace your tire before then to avoid possible problems.

Bathroom Remodeling Is the Latest Trend That Is Catching Up Fast With Urban Homes

Crucial Questions to Ask Before a Bathroom Remodel Begins

So you want to remodel your bathroom? Then congratulations and a fair warning are both in order. Because whether you’re simply upgrading your sink or ripping out every last tile, it takes tons of research to get a successful bathroom renovation right.

How much can you spend?

The average bathroom remodel will cost $20,420, but that will vary widely, based on what you do. Even a simple toilet can range from hundreds to thousands of dollars. “On average, you should budget $10,000 to $30,000,”

Who will be using the bathroom?

Consider who will be using the bathroom to help you whittle down your choices. For instance, if kids will be using the bathroom, you’ll definitely want a tub, or tub/shower combo. A tub is also key feature when it comes time to resell—at least for buyers with families.

Do you want a bigger bathroom or one the same size?

The average bathroom is 40 square feet, which may be cramped if you dream of an expansive oasis. If you want to expand, you probably can. But it will mean moving walls, downsizing adjoining rooms, or carving out space from closets.

Are you changing fixtures and/or location?

Where you want everything located is important—and moving things can cost a pretty penny. “Many clients wish to change a fixture location, such as possibly moving a toilet to a new area in the room,”

Bath Renovation Costs

These costs end up being higher for than the national average*.

Minor, mid-range renovation: Starting at $18,000—$25,000

Mid-range renovation: Starting at $29,585

Upscale renovation: Starting at $50,000—$60,000

Remodeling an bathroom all at once

While it can be tempting to apply à la carte prices to individual elements of the work, a full bathroom renovation is an integrated process that involves design, materials, installation, and plumbing. If your bathroom has one or two areas of concern, you might decide to swap out an individual fixture or two. You can replace a toilet or vanity or take on some limited retiling and pay solely for the cost of the new fixtures and the hours of installation work.

Low to high-end costs for bathroom materials and finishes

These are the visible parts of a bathroom renovation, and probably the aspect you’ve spent the most time thinking about. Take a look at the range of pricing for various fixtures, materials, and finishes in the chart below

How much will materials for a bathroom remodel cost?

Wall and floor tile: Low-end – $3 per square foot (psf), Mid-range – $15 psf, High-end – $35 psf

Sink: Low-end – $50, Mid-range – $150, High-end – $500 and up

Vanity: Low-end – $250, Mid-range –  $1,000, High-end – $2,000 and up

Sink and shower fixtures: Low-end – $40/fixture, Mid-range – $100/fixture, High-end – $350/fixture

Bathtub: Low-end – $150, Mid-range – $600, High-end – $2,000 – $3,000

Shower enclosure: Low-end – $350, Mid-range –  $1,000, High-end – $2,000

Toilet: Low-end – $150, Mid-range – $400, High-end – $1,000 and up

Medicine cabinet: Low-end – $50, Mid-range – $150, High-end – $500 and up

Accessories (hooks, towel bar, paper towel holder): Low-end – $10/item, Mid-range – $50/item, High-end – $100  and up

Lighting: Low-end – $25/fixture, Mid-range – $150/fixture, High-end – $300 and up

Ceiling vent: Low-end – $50, Mid-range – $200, High-end – $500 and up

Radiant floor heating: Low-end – $6 psf, Mid-range – $8 psf, High-end – $12 psf

Building requirements

For those in apartments, building requirements can play a significant role in dictating design and budget needs. These requirements can range from insurance coverage minimums, which limit your ability to work with professionals who aren’t carrying high-value insurance policies, to general alteration agreements that require anyone doing any work in the building to have far-reaching coverage for problems they may never encounter, like asbestos removal or collapse scenarios.

The Ultimate Guide to a Bathroom Remodel

A bathroom remodel can be difficult, stressful, and expensive. Use this guide to prepare yourself and get the best bathroom remodel possible. From sketching out ideas to choosing the right contractor to the punch list.

Deciding what you want to do

If you’re considering remodeling your bathroom, you’ve already begun the pre-pre planning phase whether or not you realize it yet! Before you rabbit trail too far into the weeds, take a moment to ask yourself some important questions to help direct your planning.

Why do I want to remodel my bathroom?

What inspired me to consider remodeling my bathroom?

How long do I plan to live in my home? (Do I want to remodel for my enjoyment or for resale value?)

What do I love about my current bathroom?

What do I most want to change about my current bathroom?

Collecting Your Ideas

We’re not talking about polished ideas of exactly what you want here, we’re talking raw materials that are going to come together in one glorious plan for your bathroom remodel. Even if the picture or idea you have isn’t directly related to bathrooms, but speaks to the style you want for your bathroom, just start collecting!

A final thought on collecting ideas

If there are two of you involved in this bathroom remodel, get ideas from both partners and put them together in the folder or Pinterest board. Better yet, go out on a date once you’ve compiled your ideas and share with each other!

A Homeowner’s Guide to Bathroom Remodeling

A beautiful bathroom—whether it’s your downstairs half-bath, a small powder room for visitors, or your own luxury master bathroom in your own bedroom—is always a highlight of any home’s floorplan. For homeowners with older homes or newer ones made with cheaper, less-efficient, or high-maintenance materials, you may have noticed how difficult it is to keep your bathroom looking clean and modern.

Hard-to-maintain bathroom spaces can detract from the value of a home’s aesthetics, affecting its functionality and asking price—if you’re thinking of selling. Bathroom remodeling is an excellent option for homeowners hoping to upgrade their homes with some of the latest in new technology, to take advantage of the incredible materials and products made specifically for renovating old bathrooms into gorgeous, gleaming ones.

While bathroom renovations are known to offer some of the highest returns on your investment available in home remodeling—planning your project to the tiniest detail is of the utmost importance. Another major factor in getting the superior results you want (and enhancing your home’s value to the fullest degree possible) is the contractor you choose to perform the work you want.

Important Details to Consider Before Getting Started With Bath Renovation

Whether you’re the type of homeowner that likes to jump in headfirst, or if you’re more of the type that’s likely to drag your feet a bit getting started, taking the time to plan a bathroom remodeling project is the key to its success. A badly planned home renovation can end up in a costly disaster—so it makes sense to take things a bit slow, at least at first, and make sure you’re covering your tracks from A to Z right from the beginning.

Types of Bathroom Remodeling Projects

As we mentioned in the last section, there are many types of bathroom remodeling projects to choose from. Deciding on the type of project you want for your home depends on your own goals for improvement—and what you hope to achieve with a renovation.

Bathroom Remodel Guide

You may have your living room well furnished with fascinating artworks and décor, your kitchen well furnished to taste with the state of art amenities, but have you ever thought of remodeling the bathroom?

Your friends, family or any other guest visiting your apartment for the very first time may ask for a tour, after showing off your well-furnished living room and kitchen room, how will you react when asked of the bathroom- given you are yet to remodel it?

The bathroom is the room for high personal hygiene activities, a place you start and finish each day with; when you wake up, you use the washroom to wash your face, brush your teeth, your hands and prepare to leave for work or go to bed. An average person spends over 400 days of his or her lifetime in the bathroom

No doubt the situation of your bathroom is the final yardstick in judging the type of person you are when your home is subjected to a tour. To scale through this, you should consider getting in touch with bathroom remodel contractor near you and get a good bargain of the cost of remodeling the bathroom.

Future prospect

When considering a bathroom model, whether to go for the bathtub or shower-only option, consider how many baths you take a year. Always bear in mind that you are renovating your home for yourself first and for a future buyer second. Go for the top-notch permanent features. Even if you have only been living in your house for a few years, it is worth doing it yourself. Selecting the best durable features will save you from unnecessary future expenses in additional remodeling.

What Exactly Is Electronic Leak Detection

Water Leak Detection

Some of the equipment that might be used would be line location equipment to be able to locate where the lines are running underground or the slab and/or several types of high powered listening devices to listen for air (that would be pumped into the water system), water and/or mixture of both escaping from the pipe through the leak.

Locating concealed fresh water leaks is a very difficult job. Many people in industry say they can do it, but very few people can actually pinpoint a leak properly. A major key to proper leak location is having someone who does and has done many of them. The more someone does the better they will be at them

Unfortunately no one in fresh water leak detection is perfect, but the right ears and experience is the key to getting right the overwhelming majority of the time. It is important to understand that when detecting a fresh water leak usually only one leak can be found at a time. Meaning it would be necessary to find and fix one leak then re-test the system to see if there are any further leaks.

However, do believe that the homes that have had more than one leak over any period of time will very likely continue to have leaks within the system. With this in mind, in most cases recommend leak location and spot repair of a home’s first leak.

Although many people in industry highly recommend re-routing water pipes to the attic immediately when a leak is discovered, this is not something that recommend at all. believe re-routing should be avoided at all costs and be used only as an absolute last possible option. Putting fresh water lines in walls and attics where one leak could cause major damage to a home is in opinion a very bad idea.

ELECTRONIC LEAK DETECTION

Leaks are always inconvenient, and it makes no difference when the leak comes to your attention, it is clear that there is a possibility that there is a very major issue causing the leak in question. More often than not, there is more to it than observing a pool of water and then repairing a pipe situated above it which makes it necessary for you to engage the expertise of a professional service

In the event of you suspecting a leak, the best thing to do is, first of all, turn off the water at the mains in an office building before you go home from work. At the same time, it is a good idea to take a reading from the water meter. The following morning, turn on the water again and take another meter reading. Any difference in the two readings can indicate that there is a leak. Places, where the water pressure is high or inconsistent, are susceptible to a lot of breaks and leaks

can guarantee punctuality in arrival time and as a matter of courtesy, you will receive a telephone call when skilled staff are making the journey to your home. All the plumbers employ have police clearance and are fully competent for the job. All the required tools and equipment are stocked in service vans so that most plumbing repairs are possible to do in your home without needing to look for supplies.

WATER LEAK DETECTION

Water pipe leaks are an increasing cause of homeowner insurance claims today thanks to continuous usage of aging systems.  Corrosion that takes hold in your water systems can lead to systemic damage, cracking, pipe bursts and eventually flooding.  Getting to these leaks in their infancy is crucial if you’re to minimize the structural and financial impact water leaks can cause

techs are water system experts capable of finding leaking components throughout your property’s systems. use a variety of testing processes including odor detection, visual inspections, thermal imaging of walls, foundations and more, to identify degraded piping elements. can even detect water main leaks that may be impacting the water supply throughout your entire piping system.

What is Leak Detection?

The sound of running water when no water should be running – you could have a slab leak

A warm or hot spot on the floor could be the indication of a hot water slab leak

If you observe cracks in the wall, doorways or floors it could be damage resulting from a slab leak

Mysterious moisture, excessive moisture or mildew under carpets, vinyl floors and walls could indicate a slab leak

High water bills could also indicate a slab leak, or a leak in your irrigation, pool or plumbing under the slab.

Water Leak FAQs

If you have questions about leak detection, have the answers! goal is to give customers all of the information they need pertaining to water leaks and leak detection so they get a good understanding of the products and services offer them.

How does a leak detector work?

A pipe or area with no leak sounds different than a pipe or area that has a leak or leaks. Smaller leaks emit a sound that is too high of a frequency for people to hear, and this is where leak detectors come in. Certain leak detectors take this sound and convert it to a level you can hear through a pair of headphones. As you get closer to the leak, the sound gets louder.

The Plumbers Complete Leak Detection Kit

Launching a career in Plumbing Leak Detection or adding leak detection services to an established business is easy with the equipment in the Plumbers Leak Detection Kit. Wherever the leak is on the customer’s property, you’re going to find it accurately, and fast! Don’t call someone else to take care of YOUR client. perform an end to end leak detection on your own using the equipment in the Plumbers Kit. It’s everything you need to take the call and get the job done right.

The heart of all kits, including the Plumbers Leak Detection Kit, is the LT-1000 Amplifier. research and development team has engineered this phantom powered device to deliver highly sensitive listening capabilities and works to power all the listening technologies you’ll find in the Plumbers Kit.

start leak detection at the meter. If can see the meter spinning, confident water is moving through the house. it is important to have all devices off in the house. No running eater, no running toilets, washing machines, dishwashers, showers or sinks. Turn everything off in the house. If the meter is still spinning, it’s virtually guaranteed the customer has a leak

Now, shut the water main into the house. If the meter is still spinning, a leak is between the meter and the house – though a leak may still exist in the house itself. If it’s not – we have a leak further back on the property, in the house. This is where the listening equipment in the Plumbers Kit takes the stage.

Customers call for a number of reasons. They hear water running, they see a visual confirmation of a leak or they see a spike in their utility bill. Wherever the cause of these issues lies, you’ve got the equipment to accurately find those leaks and get paid.

Leak Detectors

Leak detectors use a variety of technologies to quickly identify and locate small leaks in enclosed gas systems, increasing system performance and eliminating safety hazards. Most all leak detectors use one of the three leading sensing technologies; heated diode, solid-state, and ultrasonic.

Ultrasonic Inspection System

Digital system for mechanical and electrical inspections, leak detection, energy audits, vibration testing, and more.

Gas Leak Monitor

Superior performance, flexibility & functionality for low level continuous monitoring of refrigerant gases used in most commercial systems .

Wireless Totalizing Transmitter

Measure average flow and totalized volume, simple connection to a turbine meter or a pulse output device.

Acoustic Imaging Camera

Detects and displays leaks in compressed air systems and partial discharge problems in high voltage electrical systems.

Leak Detector

Allows pinpoint detection of both refrigerant and combustible gas leaks with the same instrument.

Pitched Roof VS Flat Roof

When your flat roof needs to be replaced

The Three Types of Flat Roofs

At the heart of any flat roof installation is deciding on the type of roof that best fits your home style, intended use, climate, and budget. The three main types of materials and methods used in installing flat roofs offer homeowners a variety of benefits and disadvantages.

Built-up Roof

The most traditional method, the built-up roof consists of several layers of materials that are laid down atop each other, including hot tar (bitumen), gravel, fiberglass, and roofing felt. This type of roof is fire-resistant thanks to the layers of gravel and can last up to 30 years. However, because of the hot tar, the installation of this type of flat roof should always be done by a professional roofer. It is also a very smelly process and is not recommended for occupied homes. The average cost of a built-up roof installation is $3.50-$7 per square foot.

Modified Bitumen

In direct contrast to the layered approach of the built-up roof, the modified bitumen system utilizes only one layer of rolled material, which can be made of various compounds and installed one of two ways.

The traditional installation, known as torch-down application, requires installers to heat the materials on the roll as they lay them down on the roof. A layer of felt is applied to the roof, followed by a primer and the strips of bitumen, which are sealed onto the roof via the flame of a large torch.

Because this is highly specialized and presents a fire hazard, torch-down modified bitumen roofs are rarely used outside of the professional realm. By contrast, the more modern modified bitumen approach, called peel and stick, is a possible DIY project. Both types of modified bitumen roofing systems are notable for their light colors that reflect heat, their up-to-30-year lifespan, and their middle-grade price. In fact, the installation of a modified bitumen roof generally costs between $3-$6 per square foot.

Rubber Membrane

Made of “true rubber” or ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), the rubber membrane roof is literally like a flattened car tire. However, the chemistry of the material is such that this type of roof actually resists sun damage. It is also lightweight, resistant to scuff marks and tears, and relatively easy to patch in the event of a leak. EPDM roofing is available in two colors—black and white—which serve the needs of different climates and budgets. While the black variety absorbs quite a bit of heat, the white material costs 30 percent more on average because of its heat-reflecting properties. While the average cost to install EPDM roofing is between $4-$6 per square foot, it is easy to install EPDM roofs yourself because there are several systems that you can use to secure them according to your skill level and comfort. This includes mechanical anchoring with fasteners or adhesive anchors or ballasting the material with stone.

Common flat roof problems leading to replacement

If you see the following indications, be sure that minor roof repair won’t be enough.

Water Pooling

One of the biggest issues flat roofs face is pooling water, which can result in irregular stress that causes cracks. Over time, the roof may shift a bit, meaning it may not be as level as it was when it was installed. This will most likely result in water pooling in dips and divots. While flat roofs are manufactured to stand up to water, these pools need to be drained as soon as they form to ensure water doesn’t seep into the roof’s layers. When left unchecked, the pools will harm the roof’s surface and shorten its lifespan.

Bubbling, Blistering and Adhesion Failure

Bubbling and blistering are defects that typically result from adhesion failure. The visible bubbles are generally filled with water or air. This could be a result of poor workmanship, bad insulation or insufficient ventilation. When caught early, the problem can be dealt with; left untreated, the blisters will get too large to be fixed. They can later pop and leave holes in your roofing that make your property vulnerable to interior damage. The cause behind this could be that the roof had excess moisture when it was installed.

Moisture and Leaks

Flat roofs face lingering moisture issues that can be handled effectively so long as you stay on top of them. This type of roof, like any other, can leak, as the water doesn’t have anywhere to go but down. This results in moisture seeping into the roof membranes, leading to further problems such as fungus and mould. The best way to deal with leaks and moisture is to have your roof inspected and maintained regularly. If problems aren’t caught early, a professional roofing company will be able to advise you on the best course of action.

Cracks, Splits and Tears

This is perhaps the easiest problem an untrained eye can spot. If a crack or split is left for too long on a flat roof, the plyboard or chipboard will absorb water. This may turn the material to mush so it becomes uneven, making the roof unsafe to walk on and preventing it from functioning at its best. You may choose to have your roof repaired if the problem isn’t extensive.  However, if you notice cracks or splits across the whole surface, it’s best to replace it.

Flashing

Similar to other materials, flat roofs with asphalt expand and contract with changes in temperature and weather. When left unchecked, this expansion and contraction will cause the flashing to pull away from the corners and edges of the roof, leading to moisture getting trapped and leaks appearing on your ceiling. Failing to address the issue promptly will deteriorate your roof’s flashing, compelling you to replace it.

Organic Growth

Although algae, lichens and moss might not seem like big problems, they signify that your flat roof requires attention. Any kind of organic growth on your roof is indicative of unwanted water retention. Left untreated, it can do extensive damage to your building. If you can’t figure out why there’s organic growth on your roof, have it checked by a professional.

Damaged Top Coat

If you can constantly hear a fluttering sound coming from your roof during windy conditions, chances are the top coating is damaged. As a result, every time it rains or snows the fluttering panels will expose the materials underneath to weather and cause damage. Not addressing this issue could mean that the roof fails completely and causes weather or water damage.

Design and installation

If you have had a modified bitumen felt roof installed for over 20 years, you have benefitted from an extremely exceptional lifespan for this type of roof. One would imagine that it must have been installed with a lot of care and attention and been subject to minimal foot traffic during its lifecycle.

It’s not uncommon for a felt roof to last only just over two years before it needs to be replaced. For many homeowners who opt for a felt roof, they can feel as though they have found themselves with a leak no sooner than they have had the roof installed.

If the roofer cuts back on materials, time or effort when installing a flat roof, this could significantly compromise the roof’s long-term resilience and reliability. Many homebuilders even prefer to forgo flat roofs and instead choose a tiled pitched roof for lower-level extensions and garages.

Indeed, a pitched roof can be guaranteed for longer than many types of flat roof, while a good provider of flat roofs can be a lot trickier to find than a tiler. Therefore, what are the key signs to look for when diagnosing a flat roof? How would you know whether it needs replacing or repairing?

Here is a list of particular defects that could call for a flat roof replacement. However, keep in mind that, in nearly any of these circumstances, it would be advisable for you to call in a professional to survey the roof before you have a new roof installed, as the issue might be minor.

How do you decide?

When it comes to the dilemma of repair or replace, it can be tough figuring out the best course of action. In the short-term, it is usually going to be cheaper to repair the roof. On the other hand, if your roof is bad enough, continuing to repair it becomes a never-ending exercise in futility. And you can easily end up spending more on repairs than you would have spent to just replace the roof entirely.

A good rule of thumb is this: if the material with which your roof was constructed has reached the end of its service life, you should probably replace it instead of repairing it. It is only a matter of time until other problems develop. In addition, if the cost of repair is going to exceed 20% of the cost of a new roof, and if the age of the roof is more than half of the expected service life of the material with which it is constructed, you should probably replace it. The likelihood of having to pay for additional repairs in the future is high enough to justify the additional outset at the present.